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Game Cheerleading Guidelines

Association Football/Soccer

Sport:  Association Football/Soccer

Origin:  England

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)  http://www.fifa.com/

Countries:  Two Hundred Nine (209) National Federations

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:    Although the competitive game Cuju (translation= "Kick Ball") is the earliest documented form of a football-style game (Han Dynasty 206 BC-220 AD), and there is also evidence of similar football style games over the past two (2) thousand years,  “Association Football”- better known globally as “Football” or “Soccer” was established in England in the mid-1800s.  In 1848, the particularly influential “Cambridge Rules” were first drawn up at Cambridge University in England- leading to the development of subsequent Codes, greatly influencing the future establishment of the game of “Association Football” (also known as “Football” or “Soccer”).  On 26 October 1963, the Cambridge Rules and previous developments - led to the meeting and formation of The Football Association (The FA) in London, England.   Eleven (11) Association Football Clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley (considered the “Father of Football”), ratified the original thirteen (13) “Laws of the Game”.  In 1871-1872, the “FA Cup”- the world’s oldest football competition -was founded and held- by C.W. Alcock – a famous contest between English teams.  In 1872- C.W. Alcock also organised the first official international football match between Scotland and England in Glasgow, Scotland.  In 1886, following a Manchester England meeting between the Associations in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales- the International Football Association Board (IFAB) was formed to determine the laws of the Game.  In 1888, the first Association Football league was established in Birmingham, England.   In 1904, due to the growing global popularity of the Sport, Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was established in Paris, France- by Eight (8) European Continental Associations - as the governing body for the Sport- committed to adhering to the Laws of the Game of the Football Association.  In 1913, FIFA admitted four (4) representatives to join IFAB - in addition to Britain’s four (4) original association members.   Today, “Association Football” (also known as “Football” or “Soccer”) is played by 250 million players – making it the most popular, most viewed and most played Sport in the world.

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Football/Soccer rules and regulations- for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of eleven (11) players each on the field at one time (22 players total on the field at one time)

·         The field of play is a rectangular field with a goal at each end of the field, and a spherical ball- called a “football”

·         The object of the Game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal (traditionally- between the posts and under the bar)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into two (2) parts or “halves”- with the traditional allotted time of forty-five (45) minutes per half (Note:  Stoppage time may be added to the end of each half at the referee's discretion to compensate for delays during the game.)

·         The break between halves is Fifteen (15 Minutes) - and between Halves the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         Each goal is protected by a player called the “Goalkeeper” whose objective, working in coordination with his/her “Outfield Players”, is to stop the opposing team from placing the ball into his/her team’s Goal.  The Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while the ball is in play - and only within their designated area (“Penalty Area”) surrounding the goal

·         The Outfield Players mostly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use their head or torso  

·         The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins

·         If the score is level / the same score for both teams at the end of the game- the following options are as follows- depending on the league:  

-A “draw” or a “tie” is declared 

-The game goes into “Extra Time” or “Overtime” of regular play (two extra time periods of fifteen (15) minutes)

-A Penalty Shootout is conducted to determine the winner- depending on the format of the competition

·         Football/Soccer is played both outdoors and indoors – primarily on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and also indoors and outdoors on a variety of performance surfaces

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Football/Soccer Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Football/Soccer Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Football/Soccer Team enters  

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to perform a skills- or a movement as each player is introduced.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Football/Soccer teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

d.      Penalty Kick.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to lead the crowd in a chant- while in a skill- to inspire the Kicker (if offense) or Goalkeeper(if defense) for his/her best performance

e.      Goal.   Example:  Following a Goal, Cheerleaders traditionally perform a traditional celebration with the performance of skills, a traditional crowd chant/cheer, or a routine to music- which is traditional for the team

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During moments of “Throw-Ins” or “Corner Kicks”:  An estimated fifteen  (15) seconds to performing skills- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Football/Soccer player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Cheerdancer must remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Half:  An estimated fifteen (15) minutes  (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Cheerdancers traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Cheerdancers traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Association Football / Soccer - Futsal

Sport:  Association Football / Soccer - Futsal 

Origin:  England / Uruguay

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)  http://www.fifa.com/

Countries:  Two Hundred Nine (209) National Federations

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:    Derived from the Sport of Association Football / Soccer (established in England in the mid-1800s), “Futsal” was created by Juan Carlos Ceriani Gravier, a school teacher in Montevideo, Uruguay – to structure an indoor version (smaller field of play, Five (5) players on each team instead of Eleven (11)) of the game to be played for recreation in YMCA - Young Men’s Christian Association-  sport facilities.  Following Uruguay’s victory in winning the first FIFA World Cup in 1930, and subsequent 1924 and 1928 Olympic Gold Medals in Association Football / Soccer- the Sport was wildly popular in the country, and Juan Carlos Ceriani Gravier published a “Futsal” rulebook in September 1933 to accommodate the Sport’s popularity.  Introduced in Uruguay, Futsal spread immediately throughout Latin America- allowing players to play the game during all seasons, regardless of the weather outdoors.  With Futsal’s rapid growth, its Rules were not uniform everywhere and in 1956 Habib Maphuz and Luiz Conzaga de Oliveira Fernandes within the YMCA of São Paulo, Brazil wrote the “Book Rules of Fuitsal”.  In 1965, the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol de Salón (South American Futsal Confederation) was formed, consisting of Five (5) countries - Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Argentina and Brazil- and organized a tournament of Futsal attracting great media attention throughout South America.  A journalist who was passionate about the game named, José Antônio Inglêz, is credited with promoting the rapid spread of the game, and coining the name “Futsal” (a combination of Spanish wording “Fútbol Sala” or “Fútbol de Salón”).   In 1971,  Federación Internacional de Fútbol de Salón (FIFUSA) was formed, and in 1985 FIFA began discussions with FIFUSA (later to become Asociación Mundial de Futsal (AMF). Despite differences, both organizations continue to hold Futsal Championships. 

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Futsal rules and regulations- for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Five (5) players each on the field/court at one time (Ten (10) players total on the field/court at one time)

·         The field of play is a rectangular field/court with a goal at each end, much smaller than a traditional Football/Soccer field (38-42 metres/42-46 yards x 20-25 metres/22-27 yards) and is played with a smaller spherical ball, with less bounces than a traditional “football”

·         The object of the Game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal (traditionally- between the posts and under the bar)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into two (2) parts or “halves”- with the traditional allotted time of Twenty (20) minutes per half (Note:  Stoppage time may be added to the end of each half at the referee's discretion to compensate for delays during the game.)

·         At the beginning of the match, possession is determined by a coin toss- and a “Kick Off” is used to signal the start of play, the start of the Second (2nd) Half, after a “Goal” or any periods of extra time

·         Any out of bounds (outside of the playing area, or a hit to the ceiling), the team who did not have last contact, will “Kick-in” the ball from the place where the ball went out of bounds

·         Any stoppages not defined in the Laws of the Game, will result in the Referee dropping the ball where the play stopped

·         The break between halves cannot exceed Fifteen (15 Minutes) - and between Halves the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         Each goal is protected by a player called the “Goalkeeper” whose objective, working in coordination with his/her “Outfield Players”, is to stop the opposing team from placing the ball into his/her team’s Goal.  The Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while the ball is in play - and only within their designated area (“Penalty Area”) surrounding the goal

·         The Outfield Players mostly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use their head or torso  

·         The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins

·         If the score is level / the same score for both teams at the end of the game- depending on the league- extra time periods consists of Two (2) Periods of Five (5) Minutes, followed by Penalty shots until a winner is declared 

·         Futsal is primarily played indoors –on a variety of surfaces including but not limited to turf, wood, rubberized court and concrete

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Futsal Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team / Player introductions (if applicable).  The  Cheerleaders can be in position on the court / within the court area to performing skills, or movement, as players or the team is introduced.  For more formal games (e.g. Semi-Finals & Finals), the Cheerleaders can create “tunnel” on the court – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the Futsall players to run through once their name is announced.  Upon each Futsal player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Futsal teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Penalty Kick.  Cheerleaders can position themselves to lead the crowd in a chant- while in a skill- to inspire the Kicker (if offense) or Goalkeeper(if defense) for his/her best performance

d.      Goal.   Example:  Following a Goal, Cheerleaders traditionally perform a traditional celebration with the performance of skills, a traditional crowd chant/cheer, or a routine to music- which is traditional for the team

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During moments of “Kick Ins”:  An estimated fifteen (15) seconds to performing skills- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Futsal player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Half:  An minimum of fifteen (15) minutes  (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Athletics / Track and Field

Sport:  Athletics / Track and Field

Origin:  All Nations – First Recorded Organized Competition: Ancient Greece

International Federation:   International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)  www.iaaf.org

Countries:  Two Hundred Fourteen (214) countries  

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   The Sport of Athletics / Track and Field has its roots in human prehistory, the oldest of all sporting competitions. The first recorded organized event was in 776 BC at the Ancient Olympic games in Ancient Greece.  Following the period of Classical antiquity (events of running, jumping and throwing), new Athletics / Track and Field events began to develop in parts of Northern Europe, including Stone Put (later Shot Put) and Weight Throw (later Hammer Throw) of Celtic Societies in Ireland and Scotland.  In the 1700s, the Pole Vault was added frim the Fierljeppen contests in the Northern European Lowlands region.  The establishment of the Modern Olympic Games in 1896 marked a new high for Athletics / Track and Field, the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) was established on 17 July 1912 as the international governing body – later to be renamed International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) in 1982

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Athletics / Track and Field rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         A collection of disciplines of Athletics / Track and Field, including various events as Running (Sprints/Short Distance, Middle Distance, Long Distance, Relay Races, Hurdling), Jumping (Long Jump, Triple Jump, High Jump), Throwing (Shot Put, Discus Throw, Javelin Throw, Hammer Throw), Pole Vault, as well as Combined Events (Decathlon, Heptathlon, Pentathlon, etc.) 

·         The objective is to win by exceeding all competitors in speed, height, distance of any of the respective Athletics / Track and Field discipline(s)   

·         Athletics / Track and Field is played both indoors and outdoors on a great variety of surfaces (depending on the discipline), including but not limited to a rubberized track surface, “blacktop”, concrete, cinder, wood, grass, turf and sand surfaces  

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors), as well as areas of field of play.   Due to the uniqueness of many disciplines operating simultaneously during Athletics / Track and Field events, always consult the tournament director for schedule and designated performance location(s) – prior to any Cheerleading activity

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the Athletics/ Track and Field event starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Athletic / Track and Field Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Athlete, Team, National introductions (at various locations of the venue).  Example:  Cheerleaders can stand at various designated safe locations within the venue- to support an Athlete or Team when they are introduced.  Upon each introduction- the Cheerleaders can perform skills.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the specific event begins

b.      During Specific Events.  Based on the results of any specific event, the Cheerleaders can leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill) to celebrate the result

c.       Awards.  Cheerleaders can assist with the medal/award presentation – as determined by the Athletics / Track and Field event director 

Note:  During any Athlete injury nearby, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the event to resume

3.      Cheerleading Performances.  At any point of the Athletics / Track and Field event (based on the direction of the event director) where there may be a break in events, Cheerleading and Pom Teams can perform skills only,, Cheers only, mini-routines or full routines (exhibition or competition routines in full) for the crowd depending on the time available   Based on the performance surface-  grass, rubberized track, etc.- Cheerleading skills can be performed within accordance of the ICU safety rules, as well as within a designated safe area pre-determined by the Athletics / Track and Field event director. 

4.      Post-Game (following the Game/ event): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your athlete and/or team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Australian Rules Football

Sport:  Australian Rules Football / Australian Football

Origin:  Australia

Governing Body:   AFL Commission  http://www.afl.com.au/ 

Country:  Thirteen (13) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Australian Rules Football  (officially known as “Australian Football”, also called “Football”, “Footy” and “Aussie Rules”) is a contact team sport, involving an oval-shaped ball played on an oval-shaped field with four (4) poles designating the “Goal Posts” (the taller two (2) inside posts) and “Behind Posts” (the shorter two (2) outside posts) at each end of the field.  Reputed to have originated from sporadic “foot-ball” games (rules unknown) being played in the Australian colonies in the early 1800’s, the first recorded match – modelled on English School Football - was held within the Melbourne Victoria Public Schools on 15 June 1858 – a match between Scotch College and Melbourne Grammar School on the St. Kilda foreshore.  That same year, on 10 July 1858, the Australian born Tom Wills - Captain of the Victoria Cricket Team and former pupil at Rugby School in England, published a letter in the Bell’s Life in Victorian Sporting Chronicle- calling for the formation of a “foot-ball club” with a “code of laws” to assist Cricket players to remain fit during the winter months.  Two weeks following Tom Wills’s 10 July 1858 letter, Tom Wills’s friend and fellow Cricket Player Jerry Bryant posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground.  This was the first of several games in 1858, including Wills, Bryant and members of the Melbourne Cricket Club.  Trees were used as goal posts, and without a “code of laws” players were guided by rules learned in the British Isles. 

 

On 7 and 14 August 1858, in the same location (Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground), Tom Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam umpired another match between Scotch College and Melbourne Grammar School- which lasted two (2) subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one (1) goal.  This match is commemorated with a statute outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground and the two (2) schools have competed annually ever since in the “Cordner-Eggleston Cup”, known as “the world’s oldest continuous football competition”.  For the remainder of 1858, Tom Wills served as Captain of the loosely organized Melbourne Football team against other enthusiasts.  On 14 May 1859, the Melbourne Football Club was established, one of the world’s oldest football clubs, and on 17 May 1859- Wills, and colleagues Hammersley, Thompson and Smith- drafted ten (10) simple rules, “The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club” –which was the foundation of modern day Australian Football-  preceding the codes of Association Football/Soccer (1863) and Rugby Union (1871).  From the point, Australian Football quickly expanded throughout Australia and Internationally.  In 1905, the “Australasian Football Council” was formed to govern Australian Football.  Since 1994, Australian Football has been governed by the AFL and the organisation's Laws of the Game committee and is played in thirteen (13) countries around the world.  Australian Football and remains the most popular Sport in Australia

 

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Australian Football rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Eighteen (18) players- Thirty Six (36)  players total on the field at one time

·         The objective for each team is to move the oval-shaped ball down the field to the opposing side of the field, by running with the ball (with a required bounce on the ground every 15 metres) or propelling the ball by foot (kicking), clenched fist (a “handball” or “handpass”) or by open-handed tap- and score a “Goal” or a “Behind” by kicking or placing the call between the opposing team’s goal posts.  The ball cannot be thrown under any circumstances and when a player is talked- the player must dispose of the ball cleanly or risk being penalized for holding the ball

·         The field of play is oval-shaped field with four (4) poles designating the “Goal Posts” (the taller two (2) inside posts) and “Behind Posts” (the shorter two (2) outside posts) at each end of the field

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into Four (4) Twenty (20) minute Quarters with the ball in play- with a Six (6) minute break between the 1st and 2nd Quarters, and the 3rd and 4th Quarters, and a Twenty (20 minute break at Half time) between the 2nd and 3rd Quarters.  Between each Quarter-  the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field and the officials change sides of the field at the Half.  Official game clock/game time is known to the timekeepers and is not displayed to the players or the public, the only knowledge of game time is when the sirens sound to mark the beginning and the end of each quarter

·         During the game- commencing each Quarter with a “Ball Up” (when the Umpire bounces the ball between tow (2) players to battle for possession) intermixed with other moments of pause  – a “Ball Up” / “Throw In” – to settle a dispute of possession or a “Mark” (when the ball is successfully transferred over 15 metres to a teammate), both teams are continually battling for possession of the oval-shaped football in attempt to advance down the field and score a “Goal” or a “Behind”

·         Method of scoring by a team can be the following:   a “Goal” = 6 points by one of the attacking team’s players kicking the ball through the center Goal posts via “On the Full” (without touching the ground or any of the posts) or by bouncing through within any contact with any player or any of the posts; or by a “Behind” = 1 point by passing through the Behind Posts at any height (but not between the center Goal Posts), or if the ball hits a Post or if a player sends the ball between the Goal Posts by touching it with any part of the body other than the foot or if the ball touches any part of an opposition (defending) player as the ball passes through the Goal Posts

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Australian Football is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and/or indoors on a similar performance surface.   Australian Football can also be played on the beach (a sand surface) as well as various indoor/outdoor surfaces determined safe by league officials

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Australian Football Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introductions .  Example:  Cheerleaders create “tunnel” on the field – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for their respective Australian Football to run through once their name is announced.  As the team runs through the tunnel - the Cheerleaders can safely perform skills- or a movement as each player and coaching staff runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Ball Up.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Quarter (when the Australian Football Teams get into position on the field- with their two (2) designated players in the middle for the umpire to initiate the “Ball Up” ), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the Ball Up is initiated and the Quarter official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the Ball Up is initiated.   The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the Quarter begins

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      Following a Score (via a “Goal” or a “Behind”).  A traditional celebration activity engaging the crowd (e.g. Counting Points with the crowd through Cheerleader pushups, Stunt Extensions, Tumbling), or a celebratory performance, signs leading the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song- are excellent opportunities following a Cheerleading team’s respective Australian Football Team Score

5.      During a change/pause in possession (in preparation for a “Ball Up” or “Throw In” or “Free Kick”):  An estimated fifteen-thirty (10-30) seconds to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

6.      Time-out (Television Time Out- if applicable):  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is an Australian Football Player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

7.      Between each Quarter:  An estimated Six (6) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

8.      Between each Half (“Half Time”):  An estimated Twenty (20) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

9.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Baseball

Sport:  Baseball  

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) http://www.wbsc.org/

Countries:  One Hundred Forty One (141) countries  

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   Baseball is a “Bat and Ball” sport played between two (2) teams of Nine (9) players who take turns batting and fielding.   Although the common thought is that the Sport of Baseball was created by a young man named Abner Doubleday (later to be U.S.A. Civil War hero) in Cooperstown, New York, U.S.A. in 1839; the history of Baseball is slightly more complicated than the Doubleday legend.  Versions of a “Bat and Ball” game, different that the game of Cricket, have been recorded since 1300’s in France, 1700’s in England (perhaps from a game called “Rounders”), in Canada and the U.S.A.   In the early 1800’s, many versions of a “Bat and Ball” game were played in North America, and in 1845, Alexander Cartwright- a member of the New York City’s Knickerbocker Club led the codification of the “Knickerbocker Rules”- considered the basis to the rules of modern day Baseball.  There is evidence of games in 1845, but the first recorded Baseball game was on 19 June 1846 in Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S.A.- of the “New York Nine” defeating the “New York Knickerbockers” 23-1 in four innings.  By the mid-1850’s, the Sport of Baseball was a craze in the New York City area, soon the U.S.A.’s most popular sport- and over the next century the rules were adjusted and Baseball became known as “America’s Past time”.  Since the mid-1800’s, it is recorded that Baseball was played in Canada, Mexico, Cuba- and in the 1900s Baseball spreading to Europe, Asia and the rest of the world.  In 1938, the International Baseball Federation (IBAF) was formed, later to merge with the International Softball Federation to become the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) in 2013

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Baseball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Nine (9) Players each who take turns “Batting” and “Fielding”, on a Baseball specific field consisting of 45 degree angle “piece of pie shape” which is the field of play, with an angled square area the “Baseball Diamond” inside of it- consisting of the Four (4) “Bases” and “Pitcher’s Mound” in the middle of the square

·         The objective of each team is to “Score Runs” around the “Bases” to reach “Home Plate” while “at Bat” against the opposing team.  Within the rules and regulations, the  and running around all Four (4) Bases to return to the original batting position, called “Home Plate”

·         Time of play consists of Nine (9) “Innings” – segments of the game (not timed) of which each team has the opportunity to “Bat” (to be on offense) and also “Field”  (to be on defense)

·         Within each Inning, the Defensive team / the team “Fielding” - has its Nine (9) players in specific positions throughout the Baseball Field, with One (1) of these Players- the “Pitcher” - in the middle of the “diamond” throwing the baseball to the Offensive team’s person who is “Batting” /  standing at the “Home Plate” with a bat trying to hit the ball being thrown by the Defensive Team’s Pitcher

·         Each time the Offensive team’s person is “At Bat” they have Three (3) tries or “Strikes” to successfully hit the ball within the field of play, without the defensive team catching the ball before it hits the ground.  Also – once the ball is hit, the offensive player must then successfully run to the “First Base” (of Four (4) total bases) prior to the ball reaching the first base from the defensive team.  If the offensive player reaches Three (3) Strikes – while batting, or does not successfully reach the “First Base”, then this player is “Out”.   Three (3) “Outs” concludes an offensive series in an Inning, and then the teams switch places.  Once each team has an opportunity to play “Offense” (Bat) and also “Defense” (Field), the inning is over

·         The goal of each team is to successfully hit the ball, and run around all Four (4) Bases, reaching the position where they started- also called “Home Plate”.  By reaching “Home Plate” – an offensive teams scores One (1) point.  An offensive batter can also hit the ball – in bounds of the 45 degree field- but out of the designated playing area to score a “Home Run”, this automatically advances the Offensive player to Home Plate and any other Offensive players who might be on one of the Bases.  Each player reaching Home Plate= 1 point for the Offensive team

·         The team with the most points at the end of the Ninth (9th) Inning, wins the game.  If both teams are tied at the end of the 9th Inning, the baseball teams continue to play full Innings, until one of the teams has more points, designating a win

·         Baseball is played primarily outdoors on a specific Baseball Field comprising of grass or turf (for the “Outfield” or area beyond the “Bases”) and earth / dirt / clay or the areas where the Offensive players will run / where the Bases are located.  Baseball is sometimes played indoors (and outdoors) with a variety of surfaces (rubberized track, concrete, earth, dirt, clay, wood, turf), and can be played on a beach surface (sand)- although the more standard outdoor surface (grass and earth) is more common 

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  On the grass surface, out of the way of any practice baseballs being thrown, Cheerleaders can performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers. Cheerleaders can also be within the interior of the stadium (leading the crowd – with no skills), or within a safe designated area performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers.  No skills are allowed at any time on top of a Baseball Dugout -  and any crowd leading from this position are only allowed if the dimensions and structure are such, that the Dugout is used as an official stage for other activities during the Baseball game AND if any Baseball is not in play

2.      Baseball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions.  Example:  Depending on the game arrangements and surface, Cheerleaders create “tunnel”  – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the Baseball Players to run through once their name is announced OR the Cheerleaders can position themselves to face the crowd for the introductions. Once each Baseball Player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Seventh (7th) Inning Stretch.  Between the Sixth (6th) and Seventh (7th) Innings, Baseball Games normally take a longer break (to allow the crowd to stand up and “Stretch”) to sing a song, play interactive music or do something traditional for the home baseball team.  During this time, Cheerleaders should coordinate with the Baseball Game director and add Cheerleading skills or activities to the tradition being performed.  This can be something unique to the home team, e.g. holding a skill while singing a song, using signs, poms and hand gestures to lead the crowd, working together with the team mascot - and / or dispersing in the crowd to encourage interaction with the Seventh (7th) Inning tradition

c.       The First Pitch.  In anticipation of the start of the Game the “First Pitch”, the Cheerleaders position themselves - out of the way of a potential traveling Baseball - but in a place to lead the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the official start of the game.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a place to lead the crowd- with a noise maker of some kind (e.g. a set of car keys or following the Game musical/percussion group) – until the First Pitch.   The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the Game begins

3.      During Play:  Because a Baseball is a hard and fast moving object, the Cheerleaders should refrain from performing skills or doing any activities that would place the Cheerleaders in range of a traveling Baseball.  Basic chants, cheers in a safe position is all that should be performed during play, with a clear view of the Baseball Game underway.   If there is a designated area that is safe for skills to be performed, where it is not possible for a Baseball to  travel to that rea- then Cheerleading skills and performances to music may be initiated 

4.      Between the “Top of the Inning” (first team on offense) and “Bottom of the Inning” (second team on offense).  This is the moment when there is the exchange of the teams from the Field / Defensive position.  There is an estimated 5-10 seconds (2:30 seconds in Major League Baseball play) to perform a quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  Very important:  Cheerleaders must be out of the range of play before the first pitch

5.      Following Score or a “Run”:  An estimated 5 seconds to perform a quick chant, cheer or band cheer with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  There is traditionally very little time to perform a skill following a normal score or “Run” in Baseball

6.      Following a “Home Run”:  Once a Cheerleader’s team hits the Baseball in-bounds but out of the Field of play- it is a “Home Run”.   When this happens, there is an estimated 5-10 seconds to perform a celebratory chant, cheer or band cheer with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  Although there is traditionally just a little more time following a “Home Run” than an regular score or “Run”- there very little time to perform a skill unless it is a traditional celebratory activity coordinated with the Baseball Game director.  This is a great opportunity to perform something very traditional and unique for your baseball team- but it must be coordinated with the Baseball game director  

7.      Time-out / Switch of Pitchers:  An estimated ten-thirty (10-30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  During a Baseball injury time-out (e.g. an injury on the court), the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Basketball

Sport:  Basketball

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA) http://www.fiba.com 

Countries:  Two Hundred Fifty One (251) countries  

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   In early December 1891, a Canadian-born physical education professor /instructor - named Dr. James Naismith - was working at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School (“YMCA”) (today Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.  In the midst of the long winters of the Northeastern U.S.A., Dr. Naismith was trying to keep his gym students active on a rainy day and sought a variety of vigorous indoor games to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness – while confined indoors.  After attempting and rejecting various ideas -  either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, Dr. Naismith wrote the basic rules of a new Sport (soon to be “Basketball”)- he nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track – and created a Sport with the objective of one team “scoring” by successfully throwing a ball (then a Football/Soccer Ball) into the peach basket.  In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and the ball had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored. This proved inefficient, so the bottom of the basket was eventually removed- allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time. Eventually this too was proved inefficient- Basketball continued to involve- with a hoop and net instead and developed into its modern day form played around the world

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Basketball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Five (5) players on a rectangular court (10 players total on the court at one time)

·         The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop (also termed “basket”) 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter and 10 feet (3.048 m) high mounted to a backboard at each end

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into two (2) “Halves”, and depending on the league – a Basketball game can have the two (2) Halves divided into “Quarters” = four (4) total quarters.  Not all Basketball games have quarters. During the break between quarters (if applicable) or between halves -  the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the court, as well as their respective hoop (also termed “basket”) in which they can score points

·         A team can score a “Field Goal” by shooting the ball through the basket during regular play- a Field Goal scores three (3) points for the shooting team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line, and two (2) points if shot from in front of the line

·         A team can also score via “Free Throws”, which are worth one (1) point, after the other team was assessed with certain “Fouls” (the Basketball term a game violation)

·         The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing (also known as “dribbling”) it while walking or running or throwing it to a teammate

·         It is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling

·         The team with the most points at the end of the game wins (additional time “overtime” is issued when the score is tied at the end of regular game)

·         Basketball is played both indoors and outdoors on a variety of surfaces, including but not limited to a wood court surface, rubberized surface, “blacktop” surface and/or concrete surfaces

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Basketball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions .  Example:  Cheerleaders create “tunnel” on the court – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the basketball players to run through once their name is announced.  Upon each basketball player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Tip Off.  Example:  Prior to the basketball “Tip Off” (a moment to start the game- when the referee throws the ball in the air for two (2) opposing basketball players to “tip” the ball to another one of their teammates- to begin the game ), Cheerleaders perform skills and make noise with the crowd –highlighting the moment when the referee throws the ball in the air.  The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      Between Plays:  Following each Basket, an estimated 5-10 seconds to perform a quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- depending on the game momentum

5.      Following Free Throw (if your team scores)s:  an estimated 5-10 seconds to perform a traditional quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- to celebrate the point

6.      Time-out:  An estimated ten-thirty (10-30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  During a Basketball injury time-out (e.g. an injury on the court), the Cheerleaders and Cheerdancer must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

7.      Between each Quarter (if applicable):  An estimated two (2) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

8.      Between each Half (“Half-Time”):  An estimated fifteen (15) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Cheerdancers traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Cheerdancers traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

9.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Basketball / 3x3 Basketball

Sport:  Basketball / 3x3 Basketball

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA) www.fiba.com 

Countries:  Two Hundred Fifty One (251) countries  

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   Derived from traditional Team Basketball (invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith - Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.), 3x3 Basketball- also called “Streetball” or “Street Basketball” is the largest urban team sport in the world.  A form of Basketball played by Three (3) Players on each Team (Six (6) Total) and One (1) Basketball Hoop- and ½ of a traditional sized court, 3x3 Basketball is noted to have always been played since Basketball was invented- although in a less formal way than recent years.   The first large 3x3 Basketball competition was launched in 1989 by the USA based organization Hoop It Up, with various similar 3x3 Basketball competitions being held around the world.  Basketball’s international governing body, Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA), tested 3x3 Basketball at the 2007 Asian Indoor Games in Macau, with further tests in Dominican Republic (April 2008) and Indonesia (October 2008); and entered the Sport into the 2009 Asian Youth Games and the 2010 Summer Youth Olympic Games- both held in Singapore. 

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s 3x3 Basketball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Three (3) players – and One (1) Substitute Player each on half-Basketball court with One (1) Basketball Basket (a “Hoop” or “Basket”) and a traditional basketball style “Arc” marked on the floor - Six (6) players total on the court at one time

·         Following traditional basketball rule play of “Dribbling”, Passing and Shooting, the objective is to shoot a ball through the Hoop or Basket - mounted to a “Back Board

·         Shots made inside the Arc is One (1) Point, outside the Arc is Two (2) Points.  There is a “Shot Clock” of Twelve (12) Seconds

·         Team possession is determined by the flip of a coin- the winning team of the coin toss can select to start on Offense or Defense, and simply begins play outside the Arc

·         Total time of play per game is Ten (10) Minutes or “Sudden Death” when a winning team reaches Twenty One (21) points first, but must win by Two (2) or more points 

·         If in a “Tie” / the same score at the end of Ten (10) Minutes, there is a break, and “Overtime” continues until the winning team reaches Two (2) Points higher than its opposing team 

·         The team with the most points at the end of the game wins  

·         3x3 Basketball is played both indoors and outdoors on a variety of surfaces, including but not limited to a wood court surface, rubberized surface, “blacktop” surface and/or concrete surfaces

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      3x3 Basketball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team / Player introductions (if applicable).  The  Cheerleaders can be in position on the court / within the court area to performing skills, or movement, as players or the team is introduced.  For more formal games (e.g. Semi-Finals & Finals), the Cheerleaders can create “tunnel” on the court – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the basketball players to run through once their name is announced.  Upon each basketball player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Start of the Game.  Following the coin toss, as the first (1st) play is about to begin, Cheerleaders perform skills and make noise with the crowd –highlighting the moment when the game begins.  The idea is to create great excitement for the start of the game

3.      During Play:  Performing quick skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

4.      Between Plays:  Following each Basket, an estimated Five (5) seconds to perform a quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- depending on the game momentum

5.      Following Free Throw (if your team scores)s:  an estimated Five (5) seconds to perform a traditional quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- to celebrate the point

6.      Time-out:  An estimated ten-thirty (10-30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  During a 3x3 Basketball injury time-out (e.g. an injury on the court), the Cheerleaders and Pom Team must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Cricket / Twenty20 Cricket

Sport:  Cricket / Twenty20 Cricket

Origin:  England

International Federation:   International Cricket Council (ICC) www.icc-cricket.com

Countries:  One Hundred Six  (106) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Cricket and Twenty20 Cricket (also called “T20”) is a “Bat and Ball” sport played between Two (2) Teams of Eleven (11) players on a Cricket Field.   Although there are a number of claims tracing Cricket back to 1301 England, Cricket can be firmly traced to Tudor times, 1500s England, when a 59-year old Coroner in court on 17 January 1597, John Derrick, referenced his student days at “Free School at Guilford” – Fifty (50) years earlier- where he and classmates played the Sport of Cricket.  It is believed that Cricket began as a child’s game based on references leading up to 1610, but adults began to play Cricket documented by a death record of a Cricket player, Jasper Vinall, who died from a game head injury between two Parish teams in Sussex, England.  Various accounts suggests organized games were played, especially in Southeast England, with Professional matches being recorded following the Restoration in 1660.   In 1697, a newspaper reported a great Cricket Match played for high stakes in Sussex, and popularity of the Sport accelerated through the 1700s – with development of Bowling techniques (for a faster game) and changes in the bat design.  In 1760, the Hambledon Club was founded and remained as the game’s greatest club until the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was established, and the Lord’s Old Ground opened in 1787.   MCC became the sport’s premier club and custodian of the Laws of Cricket with various developments- including the “Three (3) Stump Wicket” and the “Leg Before Wicket” format/rules.  As the Sport grew throughout England with the creation of county clubs in 1839 (forming the first official County Championships in 1890)- the first international match took place between U.S.A and Canada in 1844 (St. George's Cricket Club, Bloomingdale Park, New York, USA- Canada won by 23 runs), and an English team toured North America in 1859.  In 1862, an English team also toured Australia, in 1868 a team of Australia Aboriginal stockman traveled to England to play county teams.  The most famous “Cricketer” of the 1800s was W.G Grace of England who started his long and successful career in 1865.  In 1876-77, England played the first-ever “Test Match” (highest level for National Teams) at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia, creating the rivalry between the two (2) countries and giving birth to “The Ashes” (the Australia v England series).  In 1888, a Test Match was played between England and South Africa- further expanding Cricket globally.  Prior to the Second World War, Cricket gained popularity in the countries of the Caribbean region, India and New Zealand, expanding further following the War to Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.   The most dominant Cricket player of the war era was Don Bradman of Australia.

 

In 1962, with great success, Cricket added a shortened version of the game called, “Limited Overs Cricket” or “One-Day Cricket”  in which the game has a pre-set limit of 20-50 “Overs” (a series of Six (6) “Bowls”- or throws by the “Bowler” to the “Batter”).   Traditionally a much longer game (can take up to Five (5) days to complete), the shorter version of the game allowed for more matches to be played, which further increased the popularity of Cricket.  The first “Limited Overs” International Match was held in 1971 in Melbourne, Australia, and the first “Limited Overs” World Cup in 1975.   In 2003, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) introduced an even shorter version of the game called TWENTY20 CRICKET / T20, which limits each team to One (1) Innings each, and each Innings is restricted to a maximum of Twenty (20) “Overs” (each “Over” is a set of Six (6) “Bowls” or throws to the Batter) .  The average time of a typical Twenty20 Cricket Game is approximately Three (3) hours- and is excellent for Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes to participate

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Twenty20 Cricket rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Eleven (11) Players each who take turns “Batting” and “Fielding”, on a Cricket Field (specific to Cricket) consisting of a “Boundary”, an “Outfield” (outside ring within the field of play), an “Infield (inside ring within the field of play), a rectangular “Pitch” (Twenty Two (22) Yards long) with Three (3) Posts / a “Wicket” at each end- with Two Smaller Sticks on Top / “Bails”

·         The objective of each team is to score the most points or “Runs” by the Offensive Team’s Batter/ Striker –who is attempting to hit the Cricket Ball that the Defensive Team’s “Bowler” “Bowls” / throws to the Batter/Striker – without having the ball knock down/dislodge any part of the “Wicket” (the poles behind the batter) or the “Bails” which rest on top of the Wicket and within the Batter being “Dismissed” for any other reason in accordance to Cricket Rules

·         A Score / “Runs” are achieved when a Striker either hits the ball to/past the “Boundary” without touching the ground = Six (6) Points (a “Six”), to the “Boundary” regardless of touching the ground = Four (4) Points (a “Four”), or hits the ball with both batters (including the non-Striking partner) running to the opposite sides of the “Pitch” attempting to touch the ground behind the “Popping Crease” (line on the other side of the pitch) with the bat or body– prior to any Defensive Players knocking down either Wicket or Bail prior with the ball or with the ball in possession.  Each successful run in this case= One (1) Point per Run, and each “Batsmen” (Offensive Player) may double back to score two or more Runs. At times, Four (4) or more Runs may be scored off a single ball in this fashion.  If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease; the nearest batsman is “Run-Out” or is “Dismissed”.  Other “Runs” can be scored by “Bowling” errors including - “No Ball”, “Leg Bye”, “Bye” or a “Wide”, “Penalty Runs”, “One Short”, “Over Throws”

·         In Twenty20 Cricket specifically, the match is limited to One (1) Innings / Offensive opportunity for each team, and each Innings is limited to maximum of Twenty (20) “Overs” (each “Over” is a set of Six (6) “Bowls” or throws to the Batter).  The team with the most points after the final Innings- wins the match

·         Cricket / Twenty20 Cricket is played primarily outdoors on a specific Cricket Field comprising of grass or turf with the center rectangle area, the “Pitch” being an earth/dirty/clay flat surface 

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  On the grass surface, out of the way of any Cricket Ball being thrown or hit, Cheerleaders can performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers. Cheerleaders can also be within the interior of the stadium (leading the crowd – with no skills), or within a safe designated area performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers

Baseball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team/Player introductions.  Example:  Depending on the game arrangements and surface, Cheerleaders create “tunnel”  – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the Cricket Players to run through once their name is announced OR the Cheerleaders can position themselves to face the crowd for the introductions. Once each Cricket Player introduction in announced- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      The First Bowl of each Innings.  In anticipation of each Innings / the “First Bowl”, the Cheerleaders position themselves - out of the way of a potential traveling Baseball - but in a place to lead the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the official start of the game.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a place to lead the crowd- with a noise maker of some kind (e.g. a set of car keys or following the Game musical/percussion group) – until the First Bowl.   The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the Game begins

2.      During Play:  In between “Bowls”, Cheerleaders can perform skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill) to motivate the crowd

3.      Between Batters.  An estimated ten-twenty (10-20) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

4.      Following a Score/Run:  An estimated ten-twenty (10-20) seconds to perform a skill, a chant, cheer or band cheer with the crowd- in celebration of the “Run”

5.      Following a “Six” or “Four” Run:   When a Cheerleader’s Cricket team successfully hits the Cricket Ball to the “Boundary” to score a “Six” (Six (6) Points/Runs via the ball traveling to the boundary without touching the ground) or a “Four” (Four (4) Points/Run via the ball traveling to the boundary with touching the ground or defensive player) - there is an estimated Twenty to Thirty (20-30) seconds to perform a celebratory chant, cheer or band cheer with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  Because this is a special moment in the match, this is a great opportunity to perform something very traditional and unique for your Cricket team- but it must be coordinated with the Cricket match director  

6.      Interval Between Innings:  An estimated Ten to Twenty (10-20) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd Innings, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Interval” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

7.      Time-out or Penalty (if in your team’s favor):  An estimated ten-thirty (10-30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  During a Cricket injury time-out (e.g. an injury on the field), the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Faustball / Fistball

Sport:  Faustball / Fistball

Origin:  Germany

International Federation:   International Fistball Federation (IFA) http://www.ifa-fistball.com

Countries:  Sixty Seven (67) countries – Twenty (20) Members, Forty-Seven (47) Recognized members

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   Resembles the game of Volleyball, except the ball is allowed to bounce between times when a player hits, and the traditional volleyball net is replaced with Faustball/Fistball net (visual appearance of a band or tape tape between 2 poles) at similar height of the volleyball net, with fairly similar court dimensions.  Faustball/Fistball is played both indoors and outdoors

Rules:   Specific Rules and video examples are listed here:  http://www.ifa-fistball.com/rules/

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Five (5) players each- each team on the other side of the net

·         One (1) point is scored if the opposing team fails to successfully return the ball to the other side

·         To win a Match-  a team must reach Eleven (11) points first but with at least Two (2) points ahead of the opposing team, or at any moment a team reaches between Eleven  Fifteen (11- 15) points - with Two (2) points ahead of the opposing team- OR beyond this- the team who reaches Fifteen (15) points first

·         To win a Game- a team traditionally must win the best of Three (3) Matches, or best of Five (5) Matches- for a designated Championship game

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Faustball/Fistball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions.  Example:  Upon each basketball player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform a skill- or a movement for each player.  The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      First Serve.  Example:  Prior to the Faustball/Fistball “First Serve” to begin the game- Cheerleaders perform skills and make noise with the crowd involved –to highlight the moment when the game begins.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team –just prior to the start of the game

3.      During Play:  Leading the crowd in chants or cheers (no skills allowed while the ball is “in play”)

4.      Between Plays (time between a point scored and before the next serve):  An estimated 15-30 seconds to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

5.      Time-out:  One (1) time-out is allowed for each team for each set (2 time outs possible per set), each time out=  Thirty (30) seconds maximum to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

Note:  If there is an Faustball/Fistball player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Cheerdancer must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Match (time between one team losing a match- and the teams switching sides of the net):  An estimated Two (2) minutes to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

Exception:  If the game reaches the final set (e.g. the 3rd Game of a 3 match set)- the teams will switch sides when one (1) team reaches five (5) points in the match= adding an estimated Two (2) minutes to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

7.      Designated Five (5) Match Games (e.g. for Championship Games), the break before the final Match can be Ten (10) minutes or less= to perform a skill, a routine to music and/or lead a chants for the crowd

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Floorball

Sport:  Floorball

Origin:  Sweden

International Federation:   International Floorball Federation (IFF) www.floorball.org

Countries:  Sixty (60) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Floorball is a type of indoor floor hockey played with long hockey-style sticks and a plastic ball with holes.  As a playful variant to hockey, Floorball has been played since the early 1900’s in Canada- especially in high school gymnasiums, where the hockey-style sticks received their form from the hockey game called “Bandy”.  Also played in the U.S.A. in the 1950s and 1960s, the game was formerly organized in the late 1970s in Gothenberg, Sweden- as a fun past-time game within schools.  As Floorball began to spread to school yards throughout Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland- formal rules of the Game were developed, club teams began to form- and the International Floorball Federation (IFF) was established in 1986.  Today, Floorball is played in Sixty (60) countries on all continents around the world – with professional leagues located in Sweden and Finland 

Rules:   Please reference any respective league’s Floorball rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Five (5) players each side of the floor (ten players total) in possession of a long hockey- style  “Flooorball Stick” used to pass and shoot a plastic ball (with holes) into their opponent’s goal to score

·         One (1) player on each side is a “Goalkeeper” (two (2) Goalkeepers total) designated to stop the opposing team from scoring / placing the ball in his/her team’s goal

·         Each score / time the ball enters the net – it is one (1) point for the offensive team

·         The time of play consists of Three (3) Periods of Twenty (20) minutes each (Recreational and Youth leagues can play much shorter periods of play)

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Depending on the league or predetermined game rules, various procedures can be used (e.g. overtime, sudden death, shootout, etc.) to determine the final result

·         Floorball is primarily an indoor sport, played on varied court surfaces- wood, rubberized court, concrete, etc.- and can also be played outdoors on varied flat surfaces

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Depending on the performance surface and conditions, Cheerleaders can performing various skills (in designated performance areas), as well as a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers to motivate the crowd

2.      Floorball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Floorball Players enter onto the court.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Floorball Team enters    

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to perform a skills- or a movement as each player is introduced.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Face Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Floorball teams get into position- and the two (2) opposing players prepare to Face Off to begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves within the crowd or designated area – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball goes into play-  and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned within the crowd with a noise maker, poms, signs, megaphone etc. – within the ICU safety rules. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

3.      During Play:  Performing skills (in designated areas), a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants, cheers, band chants- following the game’s designated percussion or musical band/group  - depending on the performance conditions  - are excellent opportunities to engage the crowd   

4.      A Score or “Goal” by the Cheerleader’s team:  A traditional Cheerleading activity engaging the crowd (e.g. a team chant or a celebratory performance) using signs to lead the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song, following the game’s designated percussion or musical band/group  - are excellent opportunities to engage the crowd following a Team Score

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (within appropriate surface area and performance conditions)

Note:  If there is Floorball injury time-out or if there is any injury at any time, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel if in front of any of the crowd or remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Period:  An estimated Fifteen (15) minutes (depending on the league) to performing Cheerleading skills (in safe designated areas), on the ice- a non-building routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants, band chants  or cheers and/or within the crowd  (within appropriate surface area and performance conditions)

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills (in safe designated areas), routines to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants, band chants  or cheers and/or within the crowd.  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins (Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading and Pom Team athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Gaelic Football

Sport:  Gaelic Football

Origin:  Ireland    

Governing Body:   Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)  www.gaa.ie 

Countries:  Ireland and various Gaelic Athletic Association Clubs around the world    

Notes:    Gaelic Football is an Irish team sport commonly referred to as Football or Gaelic, and is the most popular sport – by spectator attendance- in Ireland.   Gaelic Football links to older varieties of football known collectively as “Caid” - commonly used by some people in reference to Gaelic Football today.  The first legal reference to Irish Football / Caid was documented by a 1308 crime at a football game in Novum Castrum de Leuan / Newcastle  - near Newcastle, Co. Dublin, where a football field still exists.  In 1527, the Statute of Galway stated its approval of playing “foot balle” and archery within the region, and by the 1600s the games had grown considerably – documented by the first recognized game in 1670 located in County Meath, Ireland.  Although the Sunday Observance Act of 1695 forbid the playing of sports, the Sport’s growth continued- and the first inter-county match was held between Louth and Meath at Slane in 1712, with documents accounts of the “Caid” over the next 100 years.   By the 1860s, England Rugby Football started to become popular in Ireland, Trinity College in Dublin was a stronghold, and by 1863- the codified rules of England’s Association Football / Soccer was beginning to circulate throughout the country.  Limerick, Ireland was a stronghold of Gaelic Football at the time, and the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock’s Drapery Store, imposed a set of Gaelic Football Rules which began to circulate to other clubs in Limerick- who also won the very first Gaelic Rules Football Game near Callan, Co. Kilkenny in February 1885.   In the effort to protect and promote traditional Irish Sports, based on the Commercials Club Gaelic Football Rules, Maurice Davin of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) published the official GAA Gaelic Football Rules on 7 February 1887, and Gaelic Football was played in the 1904 Saint Louis Summer Olympic games.  Over the next 100 years, Gaelic Football has become one of the most popular sports in Ireland, with teams located in GAA clubs around the world

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Gaelic Football and regulations- for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) Teams of Fifteen (15) Players each (One (1) of the Fifteen (15) Players is a Goal Keeper) on the field at one time (30 players total on the field at one time)  

·         The field of play is a rectangular field with an “H” shaped Goal – with a crossbar- at each end of the field.  On the bottom/ beneath the “H” shaped Goal crossbar is a net and Goal Keeper, and above the crossbar of the “H” shaped Goal is an open area 

·         The object of the Game is successfully advance the Gaelic Football down the field – within the rules of Gaelic Football (e.g. within Four (4) steps- hand passing the ball to a teammate, bouncing the ball once, soloing the ball (foot to hand) without changing hands (legal for ladies’ game) etc.) in order to kick or fist the ball (within Gaelic Football Rules) into the opposing goal  

·         Scoring is achieved - if the attacking team kicks or fists the ball above the opposing team’s crossbar of the “H” goal post= a “Point” (1 Point) or if the attacking team kicks the ball or fists the ball (by a pass or following contact with the ground/post/crossbar prior) below the opposing team’s crossbar of the “H” goal post, into the net = a “Goal” (3 Points)

·         Time of play (depending on the league) is traditionally divided into Two (2) parts or “Halves”- with the traditional allotted time of Thirty (30) minutes per Half (Sixty (60) minutes for the Game).  The referee may add on stoppage time at the end of each half    

·         The break (depending on the league) between Halves is Five to Ten (5 – 10) Minutes  

·         Each goal is protected by a player called the “Goal Keeper” whose objective, working in coordination with his/her “Outfield Players”, is to stop the opposing team from placing the ball into his/her team’s Goal

·         The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins

·         If the score is level / the same score for both teams at the end of the game- the a replay of Twenty (20) minutes is played, Ten (10) minutes per Half 

·         Gaelic Football is played outdoors – primarily on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”)  

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Gaelic Football Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Gaelic Football Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Gaelic Football Team enters    

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to perform a skills- or a movement as each player is introduced.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Beginning of each Half.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of each half -  when the Referee prepares to throw the ball between four (4) midfielders on the halfway line, the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game/play begins

d.      Penalty Kick.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to lead the crowd in a chant- while in a skill- to inspire the Attacker (if offense) or Goalkeeper(if defense) for his/her best performance

e.      Following a “Point” or “Goal”.   Example:  Following a Point or Goal, Cheerleaders traditionally perform a traditional celebration with the performance of skills, a traditional crowd chant/cheer, or a routine to music

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During moments of taking a “Sideline Kick” (out of bounds on the side) a “Kick Out” or “45”(out of bounds near the goal, if placed out of bounds by the Attacker or Defender respectfully) or “Free Kick” (for a penalty):  An estimated fifteen  (15) seconds to performing skills- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Hurling / Camogie player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between Periods:  An estimated Two (2) minutes  (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between Halves (between the 2nd and 3rd Period):   An estimated Five to Ten (5 - 10) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Gridiron / American Football

Sport:  Gridiron / American Football

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   International Federation of American Football (IFAF) http://ifaf.org/

Countries:  Seventy One (71) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   American Football / Gridiron evolved in the United States, originating from the sport of Rugby Football.  The first game of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams RutgersUniversity and Princeton University, under rules resembling a mix of Rugby and Football/Soccer, and American Football continued to evolve into its present-day form.  Referred to as “Football” in the United States and Canada (also known as “Gridiron”), the game of American Football consists of two (2) opposing teams of (11) eleven players each- on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end  

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Rugby rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Eleven (11) players each on the field at one time (22 players total on the field at one time)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into four (4) parts, or “Quarters” with the first two (2) quarters together are called the “1st Half”, and the second two (2) quarters together are called the “2nd Half”.  Each break between “Quarters” or “Halves” the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         During the game (except for moments between possession changes- known as “Kick Offs” and “Punts” when the ball is in between team possession), one (1) team has possession of the oval-shaped football (also known as being on “Offense” ) and is attempting to  advance down the field by running with or passing the ball to reach the other side of the field 

·         The objective of the “Offense” is to score points by reaching the opposing side of the field – with the ball- into the area known as the “End Zone” by scoring a “Touchdown”.  If unable to reach the End Zone- the offense can score points (fewer points than by scoring a Touchdown) by kicking the ball between the goalposts at the end of the field, known as a “Field Goal”    

·         The other team (known as being on “Defense”) opposes the “Offense” team (team with the ball) and tries to stop the offense team from scoring, and attempts to regain the possession of the ball

·         The Touchdown scores six (6) points, with the option of another play (following the touchdown) by kicking an “Extra point” = one (1) more point = seven (7) points total; or by attempting to advance the ball into the End Zone again= two (2) more points (eight (8) points total).   Seven (7) total points as the result of a touchdown (6 points + 1 extra point) is more common

·         If a Touchdown is not possible, the offense team may attempt a “Field Goal” by kicking the ball through the goalposts at the end of the field= three (3) points.

·         The offense team must advance at least ten (10) yards in four (4) downs/plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team; if they succeed, they are given a new set of four (4) downs

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         American Football is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and/or indoors on a similar performance surface. American Football can also be played on the beach (a Sand surface) as well as various indoor (e.g. Arena Football)/outdoor surfaces determined safe for players by American Football league officials

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      American Football/Gridiron Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Football Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Football Team enters    

b.      Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the American Football teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Following a Score - a “Touchdown”, a “Field Goal”, “Extra Point” or “Safety” for your team.  A traditional Cheerleading activity engaging the crowd (e.g. Counting Points with the crowd through Cheerleader pushups, Stunt Extensions, Tumbling in the End Zone), or a celebratory performance, signs leading the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song- are excellent opportunities to engage the crowd following a Team Score

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      Between Plays:  An estimated fifteen-thirty (15-30) seconds (depending on the game score clock) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If an American Football injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Cheerdancer must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume.

6.      Between each Quarter:  An estimated two (2) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between each Half (“Half-Time”):  An estimated thirty (30) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Gridiron / Canadian Football - Football canadien

Sport:  Gridiron / Canadian Football - Football canadien 

Origin:  Canada

Governing Body:   Canadian Football League (Professional) http://www.cfl.ca/ and Football Canada (Amateur) http://footballcanada.com/

Countries:  Canada  

Notes:   Gridiron/Canadian Football is played in Canada, originating from the sport of Rugby Football.  The first documented game of Canadian Football was played on 9 November 1861 at University College, University of Toronto, involving one of its students Sir William Mulock who would later become Chancellor of the school.  A Football Club was soon formed at the university- although rules of the Sport at this stage is unclear.  The first written account of the game was played on the Montreal Cricket Grounds between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards – resulting in a win by the First Battalion Grenadier Guards.  In 1864, at Trinity College Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune and Christopher Gwynn (one of the founders of the city of Milton, Massachusetts, USA)- devised rules of the Sport based on Rugby Football.  The Sport continued to grow in popularity- and the oldest existing Canadian Football Club, Hamilton Football Club, was established on 3 November 1869.  The Montreal Football Team formed on 8 April 1872, Toronto on 4 October 1873 and Ottawa on 20 September 1876.  

 

Very quickly, this version of Rugby-Canadian Football became popular at Montreal’s McGill University- which played a match against Harvard University in 1874- using hybrid rules of English Rugby / Canadian Football devised by McGill University.   The first attempted Governing Body for Rugby-Canadian Football was the Football Association of Canada on 24 March 1873, followed by Canadian Rugby Football Union (CRFU) on 12 June 1880 (CRFU was later reorganized to become the Canadian Rugby Union-CRU- in 1891)- which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.  In January 1883, the Ontario Rugby Football Union (ORFU) and Quebec Rugby Football Union (QRFU) were formed- and the “Burnside Rules” (closely resembling American Football) were incorporated by the ORFU in 1903, to further distinguish the Sport from Rugby.  In 1907, to encourage inter-Provincial matches, the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU) was formed- and later – in 1936- the Western Interprovincial Football Union (WIFU) was formed.  In 1909, the Grey Cup was established – donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, the Governor General of Canada-  as the championship originating of amateur teams under the CRU Canadian Rugby Football Championships, later to fully become the Professional Championship of Canadian Football in 1954. 

 

The 1907 adoption of the ORFU “Burnside Rules” (closely resembling American Football)- were refused by the CRFU, QRFU and CRU until the “Forward Pass” was allowed in 1929, and “Touchdowns” points were increased from five (5) points to six (6) points – in 1956.  Both Canadian and American Football originally comprised of three (3) downs, goal posts on the goal lines and unlimited forward motion of the football- but American Football modified these rules and Canadian Football did not.  The Canadian Football field dimensions - approximately 10 yards wider, 10 yards deeper- with each “End Zone” roughly 10 yards deeper each- has always remained different than American Football. 

 

Referred to as “Football” in Canada (also known as “Gridiron”), “Canadian Rules Football” and/or “Canadian Football” internationally, the game of Canadian Football consists of two (2) opposing teams of (12) twelve players each- on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end  

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Rugby rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Twelve (12) players each on the field at one time (24 players total on the field at one time)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into four (4) parts, or “Quarters” with the first two (2) quarters together are called the “1st Half”, and the second two (2) quarters together are called the “2nd Half”.  Each break between “Quarters” or “Halves” the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         During the game (except for moments between possession changes- known as “Kick Offs” and “Punts” when the ball is in between team possession), one (1) team has possession of the oval-shaped football (also known as being on “Offense” ) and is attempting to  advance down the field by running with or passing the ball to reach the other side of the field 

·         The objective of the “Offense” is to score points by reaching the opposing side of the field – with the ball- into the area known as the “End Zone” by scoring a “Touchdown” (also referred to as a “Major Score” or a “Major”).  If unable to reach the End Zone- the offense can score points (fewer points than by scoring a Touchdown) by kicking the ball between the goalposts at the end of the field, known as a “Field Goal”    

·         The other team (known as being on “Defense”) opposes the “Offense” team (team with the ball) and tries to stop the offense team from scoring, and attempts to regain the possession of the ball

·         The Touchdown scores six (6) points, with the option of another play (following the touchdown) by a “Conversion” or “Convert” = one (1) more point (a “Point-After”) = seven (7) points total; or by attempting to advance the ball into the End Zone again= two (2) more points (a “Two-Point Conversion”) =eight (8) points total.   Seven (7) total points as the result of a touchdown (6 points + 1 Point-After) is more common

·         If a Touchdown is not possible, the offense team may attempt a “Field Goal” by kicking the ball through the goalposts at the end of the field= three (3) points.

·         The offense team must advance at least ten (10) yards in three (3) downs/plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team; if they succeed, they are given a new set of three (3) downs

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Canadian Football - Football canadien is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and/or indoors on a similar performance surface.  Canadian Football can also be played on the beach (a Sand surface) as well as various indoor/outdoor surfaces determined safe for players by the Canadian Football league officials

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Canadian Football Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Football Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Football Team enters    

b.      Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Canadian Football teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Following a Score - a “Touchdown/ Major Score or Major”, a “Field Goal”, “Conversion/Convert” or “Safety” for your team.  A traditional Cheerleading activity engaging the crowd (e.g. Counting Points with the crowd through Cheerleader pushups, Stunt Extensions, Tumbling in the End Zone), or a celebratory performance, signs leading the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song- are excellent opportunities to engage the crowd following a Team Score

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      Between Plays:  An estimated fifteen-thirty (15-30) seconds (depending on the game score clock) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Canadian Football injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Quarter:  An estimated two (2) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between each Half (“Half-Time”):  An estimated thirty (30) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Gridiron / Flag Football

Sport:  Gridiron / Flag Football

Origin:  Canada / U.S.A.

International Federation:   International Federation of American Football (IFAF) http://ifaf.org/

Countries:  Seventy One (71) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Gridiron / Flag Football evolved in Canada and the United States, where the basic rules of the game are similar to those of the mainstream game (often called “Tackle Football”) – but instead of players “Tackling” the Offensive player to the ground to stop a play, the Defensive Team must remove a “Flag” or “Flag Belt” from the Offensive Player in possession of the ball (termed “Deflagging”) instead of Tackling the Offensive Player.   Gridiron /Flag Football originated from Gridiron American & Canadian “Tackling” Football respectfully- each origination from the sport of Rugby Football.  (Please see “Gridiron/American Football” and Girdiron/Canadian Football- Football canadien” for more details).  Referred to as “Flag Football” in the United States and Canada, the game consists of two (2) opposing teams of four-eleven (4-11) players each- on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end  

Rules:   Specific Rules and video examples are listed here: 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Four-Eleven (4-11) players each on the field at one time (8-  22 players total on the field at one time)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into four (4) parts, or “Quarters” with the first two (2) quarters together are called the “1st Half”, and the second two (2) quarters together are called the “2nd Half”.  Each break between “Quarters” or “Halves” the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         During the game (except for moments between possession changes- known as “Kick Offs” and “Punts” when the ball is in between team possession), one (1) team has possession of the oval-shaped football (also known as being on “Offense” ) and is attempting to  advance down the field by running with or passing the ball to reach the other side of the field 

·         The objective of the “Offense” is to score points by reaching the opposing side of the field – with the ball- into the area known as the “End Zone” by scoring a “Touchdown”.  If unable to reach the End Zone- the offense can score points (fewer points than by scoring a Touchdown) by kicking the ball between the goalposts at the end of the field, known as a “Field Goal”    

·         The other team (known as being on “Defense”) opposes the “Offense” team (team with the ball) and tries to stop the offense team from scoring, and attempts to regain the possession of the ball

·         The Touchdown scores six (6) points, with the option of another play (following the touchdown) by kicking an “Extra point” = one (1) more point = seven (7) points total; or by attempting to advance the ball into the End Zone again= two (2) more points (eight (8) points total).   Seven (7) total points as the result of a touchdown (6 points + 1 extra point) is more common

·         If a Touchdown is not possible, the offense team may attempt a “Field Goal” by kicking the ball through the goalposts at the end of the field= three (3) points

·         The offense team must advance at least ten (10) yards in four (4) downs/plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team; if they succeed, they are given a new set of four (4) downs

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Flag Football is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and/or indoors on a similar performance surface Flag Football can also be played on the beach (a Sand surface) as well as various indoor/outdoor surfaces determined safe for players by the Flag Football league officials

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Flag Football Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Football Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Football Team enters    

b.      Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Flag Football teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Following a Score - a “Touchdown”, a “Field Goal”, “Extra Point” or “Safety” for your team.  A traditional Cheerleading activity engaging the crowd (e.g. Counting Points with the crowd through Cheerleader pushups, Stunt Extensions, Tumbling in the End Zone), or a celebratory performance, signs leading the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song- are excellent opportunities to engage the crowd following a Team Score

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      Between Plays:  An estimated fifteen-thirty (15-30) seconds (depending on the game score clock) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Flag Football injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Quarter:  An estimated two (2) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between each Half (“Half-Time”):  An estimated thirty (30) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the Half-Time and prior to the start of the 2nd Half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Handball

Sport:  Handball / Team Handball

Origin:  Northern Europe (Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden)

International Federation:   International Handball Federation (IHF) http://ihf.info/

Countries:  One Hundred Ninety Seven (197) countries  

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere, and versions of handball in France and with the Inuit in Greenland in the Middle Ages.  By the 1800’s, similar games of Handball existed in Denmark, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine and Germany; with the current version of Handball played in Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden.  In 1906, Denmark Physical Education Teacher at Ordrup Grammer School, Denmark Lieutenant and 3x Olympic Medalist in the 1896 Athens Games (Fencing and Shooting)- published the 1st set of rules for the Sport of Handball.  These rules were modified in 1917 and again after 1919- with the first international games played between Germany and Belgium (men) in 1925 and between Germany and Austria (women) in 1930.  The 1926 International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to further develop rules for Handball, the International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928, and the International Handball Federation (IHF) in 1946.   Handball is one of the most widely played Sports in the world

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Handball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Seven (7) Players, each team consisting of Six (6) Outfielders and One (1) Goalkeeper, on a rectangular court (14 players total on the court at one time)

·         The objective is to shoot a ball into the opposing team’s Goal – but attackers are not allowed to touch the floor of the “Goal Area” (a xix (6) metre area around the Goal)

·         Time of play, depending on the league,  is traditionally Two (2) Periods of Thirty (30) minutes for each Period.  Teams switch playing sides of the court between Periods

·         The ball can be advanced on the court by passing the ball to a teammate, or bouncing (also known as “dribbling”) the ball while walking or running or throwing it to a teammate or an attempted score

·         It is a violation to exceed three (3) steps for up to three (3) seconds at a time - without dribbling, passing or shooting the ball

·         The team with the most points at the end of the game wins (additional time “overtime” is issued when the score is tied at the end of regular game)

·         Handball is played both indoors and outdoors on a variety of surfaces, including but not limited to a wood court surface, rubberized surface, “blacktop” surface and/or concrete surfaces.  Handball is also played on the beach (sand) and on grass or turf surfaces

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Handball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions .  Example:  Cheerleaders create “tunnel” on the court – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the Handball Players to run through once their name is announced.  Upon each Handball Player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Throw Off.  Example:  Prior to the Handball “Throw Off” (a moment to start the Period- when a team’s player throws the ball into play- to begin the Period), Cheerleaders perform skills and make noise with the crowd –highlighting the moment when Throw Off is initiated.  The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the Period begins

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      Following a Goal:  An estimated 5-10 seconds to perform a quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- depending on the game momentum

5.      Time-out:  An estimated ten-thirty (10-30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  During a Handball injury time-out (e.g. an injury on the court), the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Period (Half-Time):  An estimated Ten (10) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and an Pom Team athletes traditionally perform routines or crowd leading performances during Half-Time but– if there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, and/or some other performance for the crowd) can rest as well

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Hockey / Field Hockey

Sport:  Hockey / Field Hockey

Origin:  England

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon  / International Hockey Federation  (FIH)  www.fih.ch

Countries:  One Hundred Thirty Two (132) Countries

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:    Hockey / Field Hockey is a team sport within the hockey family.   The earliest depiction of a Hockey-like game extends from 2000 BC carvings from Ancient Egypt, 1272 BC in Ireland (the current game of “Hurling”), 510 BC in Ancient Greece, and a game called Beikou, played in East Asia (Inner Mongolia and China) around 300 BC.   Through the Middle Ages in Northern Europe, versions of the game continued- and the name “Hockey” first appeared in England in 1363 century when King Edward III issued a proclamation outlawing the practice of leisure sports, including “Hockey” by the working class.  By the early 1800s, England Public Schools were actively in playing a version of the game closer to the game of Hockey today. In 1849- a Club in Blackheath, England  (Southeast London) was the first club to play Hockey, proceeded by Cricket Clubs in Middlesex, England further developing Hockey as a sport for winter months.  In 1871, the Teddington Hockey Club in Southwest London, England was established, introducing the concept of the “Striking Circle” and changing the ball to a sphere instead of a cube- and remains the oldest Hockey Club in the world.  In 1886, the Hockey Association was established- with the first (1st) international game in 1895 (Ireland 3, Wales 0), and the International Rules Board formed in 1900.  Hockey was included in the Olympic Games in 1908 and 1920, dropped in 1924 leading to the formation of the Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon / International Hockey Federation  (FIH) -formed by Seven (7) European nations in 1924, then added back to the Olympics 1928- Present

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Hockey rules and regulations- for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) Teams of Eleven (11) Players each (One (1) of the Eleven (11) Players is a Goal Keeper) on the field at one time (22 players total on the field at one time) with a Hockey Stick for contact with the ball

·         The field of play is a rectangular field with a Goal at each end of the field

·         The object of the Game is to score by using the Hockey stick to propel the ball into the opposing goal (traditionally- between the posts and under the bar)

·         Time of play (depending on the league) is traditionally divided into Four (4) parts or “Periods”- with the traditional allotted time of Fifteen (15) minutes per Period

·         The break (depending on the league) between periods is Two Minutes (2 Minutes) – with the break between the Halves (Periods 2-3) is Fifteen (15) Minutes, and the teams switch sides at the Half

·         Each goal is protected by a player called the “Goalkeeper” whose objective, working in coordination with his/her “Outfield Players”, is to stop the opposing team from placing the ball into his/her team’s Goal.  When the ball is inside the Goalkeeper’s circle and the Hockey stick is in hand, the Goalkeeper can use any part of their body to stop or deflect a shot at goal in any direction (including over the backline), and can use only their stick, legs/legguards, and kickers/feet to clear the ball a long distance. The Goalkeeper, like all players, may not lie on the ball

·         The Outfield Players are only allowed to strike or pass the ball with the use of the “face” of their Hockey sticks

·         The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins

·         If the score is level / the same score for both teams at the end of the game- the following options are as follows- depending on the league:  

-A “draw” or a “tie” is declared 

-The game goes into two (2) periods of 7.5 minutes of overtime “Golden Goal” in which the game ends as soon as one team scores

-A Penalty Shootout is conducted to determine the winner- depending on the format of the competition

·         Hockey / Field Hockey is played both outdoors and indoors – primarily on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and also indoors and outdoors on a variety of performance surfaces

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Hockey / Field Hockey Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Hockey / Field Hockey Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Hockey / Field Hockey Team enters    

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to perform a skills- or a movement as each player is introduced.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Centrepass.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game, any Period or following a Score -  when the Offensive team’s player moves into position with the ball in the centre of the field to being play, called a “Centrepass”, the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is passed. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game/play begins

d.      Penalty Stroke.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to lead the crowd in a chant- while in a skill- to inspire the Attacker (if offense) or Goalkeeper(if defense) for his/her best performance

e.      Goal.   Example:  Following a Goal, Cheerleaders traditionally perform a traditional celebration with the performance of skills, a traditional crowd chant/cheer, or a routine to music- which is traditional for the team

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During moments of “Free Hits” or “Penalty Corners”:  An estimated fifteen  (15) seconds to performing skills- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Hockey / Field Hockey player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between Periods:  An estimated Two (2) minutes  (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between Halves (between the 2nd and 3rd Period):   An estimated fifteen (15) minutes  (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Hurling / Camogie

Sport:  Hurling / Camogie

Origin:  Ireland

Governing Body:   Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)   <http://www.gaa.ie>
www.gaa.ie

Countries:  Ireland and various Gaelic Athletic Association Clubs around the
world

Notes:    The Sport of Hurling (Male athletes) / Camogie (Female athletes)
is an outdoor team sport of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin.   The game has
prehistoric origins and has been played for over 3,000 years.   As one of
Ireland’s native Gaelic games , it shares a number of features with Gaelic
Football, including the field and goal specifications, number of players and
much of the terminology.   It shares a common Gaelic root with the Sport of
Shinty, predominantly played in Scotland.  Hurling was played in the 1904
Saint Louis Summer Olympic Games

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Hurling / Camogie and
regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) Teams of Fifteen (15) Players each (One (1) of the Fifteen
(15) Players is a Goal Keeper) on the field at one time (30 players total on
the field at one time) with a wooden stick called a “Hurley” for contact
with the Hurling-specific ball called a “Sliotar”

·         The field of play is a rectangular field with an “H” shaped Goal –
with a crossbar- at each end of the field.  On the bottom/ beneath the “H”
shaped Goal crossbar is a net and Goal Keeper, and above the crossbar of the
“H” shaped Goal is an open area

·         The object of the Game is successfully advance down the field with
the “Sliotar” either balanced on the Hurley, struck by the Hurley (to the
ground in a bounce or to teammate), or carried by hand if the Silotar is
bounced on the ground every Four(4) steps without touching the hand more
than Two (2) times in a row (without the Silotar hitting the ground or
reaching a teammate) and without the Silotar exchanging directly to the
other hand- and to use the Hurley to strike the Silotar into the opposing
goal

·         Scoring is achieved - if the attacking team sends the Silotar
above the opposing team’s crossbar of the “H” goal post= a “Point” (1 Point)
or if the attacking team sends the Silotar below the opposing team’s
crossbar of the “H” goal post, into the net = a “Goal” (3 Points)

·         Time of play (depending on the league) is traditionally divided
into Two (2) parts or “Halves”- with the traditional allotted time of Thirty
(30) minutes per Half (Sixty (60) minutes for the Game).  The referee may
add on stoppage time at the end of each half

·         The break (depending on the league) between Halves is Five (5)
Minutes

·         Each goal is protected by a player called the “Goal Keeper” whose
objective, working in coordination with his/her “Outfield Players”, is to
stop the opposing team from placing the Silotar into his/her team’s Goal

·         The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins

·         If the score is level / the same score for both teams at the end
of the game- the a replay of Twenty (20) minutes is played, Ten (10) minutes
per Half

·         Hurling / Camogie is played outdoors – primarily on a grass
surface (real or artificial / “turf”)

Cheerleading Opportunities:

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the
International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety
guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not
limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions
(horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions
(e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well
as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the
Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if
applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for
National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful
information on game skill development, please contact the ICU at
<mailto:info@cheerunion.orginfo@cheerunion.org for further details

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to
music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a
skill)

2.      Hurling / Camogie Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a "tunnel" or a
"welcome line" as the Hurling / Camogie Players enter onto the field.
Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as
the Hurling / Camogie Team enters

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position
themselves to perform a skills- or a movement as each player is introduced.
The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader's team before the
game begins

c.       Beginning of each Half.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of
each half -  when the Referee prepares to throw the Silotar between four (4)
midfielders on the halfway line, the Cheerleaders position themselves in
front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment
the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are
positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind
– within the ICU safety rules. The idea is to create great excitement for
the Cheerleader's team before the game/play begins

d.      Penalty.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to lead the
crowd in a chant- while in a skill- to inspire the Attacker (if offense) or
Goalkeeper(if defense) for his/her best performance

e.      Following a "Point" or "Goal".   Example:  Following a Point or
Goal, Cheerleaders traditionally perform a traditional celebration with the
performance of skills, a traditional crowd chant/cheer, or a routine to
music

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading
the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within
closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During moments of taking a "Sideline Cut" (out of bounds on the
side) a "65"(out of bounds near the goal) or "Free" (for a penalty):  An
estimated fifteen  (15) seconds to performing skills- and/or leading the
crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the
league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd
in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Hurling / Camogie player injury time-out or if there is
any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must remain
in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between Periods:  An estimated Two (2) minutes  (depending on the
league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd
in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between Halves (between the 2nd and 3rd Period):   An estimated Five
(5) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to
music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a
skill)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to
music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a
skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to
opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Ice Hockey

Sport:  Ice Hockey

Origin:  Canada

International Federation:   International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) http://www.iihf.com 

Countries:  Seventy Four (74) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Ice Hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in an ice rink, in which two (2) teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent’s net to score points.  Ice Hockey is played to have evolved from a simple stick and ball game played in the 1700’s in United Kingdom- which was introduced into North America, and further developed into the Sport known as “Ice Hockey” in Canada, now played in Seventy Four (74) countries around the world

Rules:   Please reference any respective league’s rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Six (6) players each side of the rink (twelve players total) wearing ice skates also in possession of a “Hockey Stick” used to pass and shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent’s need to score

·         One (1) player on each side is a “Goaltender” (two (2) Goaltenders total) designated to stop the opposing team from scoring / placing the puck in his/her team’s net

·         Each score / time the puck enters the net – it is one (1) point for the offensive team

·         Time of play can vary depending on the league, but the Professional time of play consists of three (3) periods of twenty (20) minutes each (Recreational and Youth leagues can play much shorter periods of play)

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Depending on the league or predetermined game rules, various procedures can be used (e.g. overtime, sudden death, shootout, etc.) to determine the final result

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):  Regarding Ice Surface Specific Restrictions/Details- no building nor Tumbling skills are allowed on an Ice Skates / an Ice Surface- with the exception of the Ice Hockey Cheerleaders who are confirmed as trained Figure Skaters or Synchronized Ice Skaters – who may perform lower level stunts/tricks compliant within the rules of the International Skate Union (ISU) / ISU’s associated National Federation members.  For all activities, the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines must be followed, and all Cheerleaders and Pom team athletes must remain away from / off the Ice Surface while the game is underway

Note(c):  For Ice Hockey Cheerleaders / Pom Teams - who perform on the ice surface - under the ICU guidelines, the additional regulations apply:

·         Jumps are not allowed on the ice if it requires the use of the toe pick.  Jumps are only allowed IF the jump is performed with the edge of the blade and if the Cheerleader / Pom Team Athlete is confirmed as a trained Figure Skater or Synchronized Ice Skater.  Toe pick jumping and take-offs can take out large chunks of ice- which is hazardous for the Ice Hockey Players.  If a Cheerleader / Pom Team Athlete has taken a chunk out of the ice- this must be reported immediately to an official- or the Cheerleader / Pom Team Athlete can result in performance opportunities on the ice 

·         Cheerleaders / Pom Teams should always look for loose items on the ice or “scan” the ice- for any items that might be on the ice surface- that could be dangerous to the Ice Hockey Players during play.  Pieces of pom or any items from the crowd- should always be picked up prior to the Cheerleaders / Pom Teams leaving the ice 

·         For Spacing purposes, if both opposing Cheerleading / Pom Teams are on the ice at the same time, it is customary that each Cheerleading / Pom Team positions itself between their Goal Line and their respective Blue Line (Neutral Zone Line); if one Cheerleading / Pom Team is on the ice it is customary to perform at “Center Ice” / the Neutral Zone – or any area that is effective to best promote the Game environment that is approved by the league/game officials  

Note(d):  Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, flags, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU at info@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Depending on the performance surface and conditions, Cheerleaders can performing various skills (in designated performance areas), as well as a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers to motivate the crowd (in the crowd or on the Ice with Ice Skates)

2.      Ice Hockey Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel”, a “welcome line” (near the fans or the Ice Hockey Team) or another formation - as the Ice Hockey Team enter the Ice.  The Cheerleaders / Pom Teams can perform skills, mini-routines - or a movement as the Ice Hockey Team enters    

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders / Pom Team can create a “tunnel”, a “welcome line” (near the fans or the team) or another formation - as each player is introduced.  The Ice Hockey players can skate through the “Tunnel” or can skate by the Cheerleaders, as the Cheerleaders/ Pom team demonstrates a skill or mini-routine.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       National Anthem.   During national anthems, Cheerleaders and Pom Teams may remain on the ice (or off the ice) for the National Anthem and must face toward the flag in respect of the national anthem.  Once the anthem is complete, if on the ice- the Cheerleaders must immediately exit the ice prior any start of the game

d.      Face Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Ice Hockey teams get into position on the ice- and the two (2) opposing players prepare to Face Off to begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves within the crowd or designated area (off the Ice and away from the area of play) – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the puck goes into play-  and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned within the crowd with a noise maker, poms, signs, megaphones, flags, etc. – within the ICU safety rules – until the puck goes into play. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

e.      Following a Score or “Goal”.  Example: A traditional Cheerleading activity engaging the crowd (e.g. a team chant or a celebratory performance) using poms, signs, megaphones, flags, large size flags, etc. -  to lead the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song, following the game’s designated percussion or musical band/group.  Celebration of a “Goal” is an excellent opportunity to engage the crowd following a Team Score or “Goal” 

3.      During Play:  Performing skills (in designated areas), a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants, cheers, band chants- following the game’s designated percussion or musical band/group  - depending on the performance conditions  - are excellent opportunities to engage the crowd   

4.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (within appropriate surface area and performance conditions)

Note:  If there is an Ice Hockey injury time-out or if there is any injury at any time, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel if in front of any of the crowd or remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

5.      Between each Period/during the “Intermission”:  The break is an estimated Fifteen (15) minutes (depending on the league) to performing Cheerleading skills in safe designated areas. If the Cheerleaders / Pom Teams will be on the ice during the Intermission, they must wait until the ice is resurfaced (if applicable) – providing an estimated Four to Fifteen (4 -15) minutes to perform on the ice.  Whether the Cheerleaders / Pom Teams are on the ice or off the ice during this period, ICU rules and guidelines must be followed, and activities can include items a mini- routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants, band chants  or cheers and/or within the crowd (within appropriate surface area and performance conditions).  Use of poms, signs, megaphones and flags is encouraged to create excitement for the Cheerleaders’s / Pom Team’s Ice Hockey Team.  If on the ice during the “Intermission”, near the end of the Intermission, the Cheerleaders / Pom Teams can create a tunnel the Ice Hockey Player’s entrance  (on the ice or off the ice)– to welcome the Ice Hockey Players as they re-enter to begin the next Period.  Following the Ice Hockey Team’s return to the ice, the Cheerleaders / Pom teams need to exit immediately prior to the start of play 

6.      Post-Game (following the Game):  Example:  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders / Pom Teams can perform skills (in safe designated areas), celebrate with the crowd in the stands or perform on the ice within the ICU guidelines.  Skills  (within appropriate surface area and performance conditions) can include - a mini routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants, band chants  or cheers using poms, signs, megaphones and flags.  This is an excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins!  (Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading and Pom Team athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Lacrosse

Sport:  Lacrosse

Origin:  Iroquois Nation (current Canada and USA region)   

International Federation:  Federation of International Lacrosse (FIL)  www.filacrosse.com

Countries:   Seventy Five (75) Countries

Continents:  All Five (5) Continents   

Notes:    The Sport of Lacrosse is a contact team sport played between Two (2) teams using a rubber ball, and a long-handled stick- with a mesh net at the end-  called a “Crosse” or “Lacrosse Stick”.   Lacrosse has its origins coming from the cultural tradition of the Native North American Iroquois Nation , inhabiting what is now the Northeastern USA (New York, Pennsylvania) and South mid-eastern Canada (Southeastern Ontario and Southern Quebec).  Estimated to have been developed as early as 1100 AD by the Iroquois Nation- spreading to other Native American Nations over time, by the 1600s – the Sport is documented as being well established by Jesuit missionary priests stationed in present day Canada.  In its original version, each team consisted of 100 to 1,000 athletes on a field that stretched between 500 metres (1,600 feet) to 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) as part of a ceremonial ritual, symbolic warfare to give thanks to the Creator or Master.  In 1637, the first Europeans to write about the game was French Jesuit missionary, Jean de de Brébeuf, who recorded a game he saw played by Iroquois tribesmen in present-day New York, U.S.A. and he termed the game “La Crosse” (“The Stick”) a French term that was commonly used to described a stick with a curve at the end, e.g. “Le Jeu de la Crosse” (“Hockey Stick”).   Growing in popularity in areas of North America, in 1855 a Canadian dentist, William George Beers, founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club and in 1867 William George Beers codified the Sport of Cricket- shortening the length of the game, and reducing the number of players to Twelve (12) per team (later Ten (10) Players per Team).  In 1867, the same year, Upper Canada College hosted and played Toronto Cricket Club under Beer’s rules – losing the game by a score of Three (3) to One (1).  By the 1900s, the Sport of Cricket was being played widely by high schools, colleges and universities throughout Canada and the U.S.A.- was within the Olympic Games medal programme in 1904 and 1908, and as an exhibition Sport in the 1928 and 1932 Olympic Games.  For the remainder of the 1900s, the Sport of Lacrosse primarily remained a regional Sport in North America, but in the later 1900s quickly expanded to Seventy Five (75) countries on all Five (5) continents. In 2008, both the Men’s and Women’s International Lacrosse Associations merged, creating the Federation of International Lacrosse (FIL), the international governing body for the Sport

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Lacrosse and regulations- for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) Teams of Ten (10) Players each = One (1) Goal Keeper or “Goalie”, Three (3) Attackmen, Three (3) Midfielders, and Three (3) Defensemen on the field at one time (Twenty (20) players total) - with a long-handled stick- with a mesh net at the end-  called a “Crosse” or “Lacrosse Stick”

·         The field of play is a rectangular field with a netted Goal at each end sitting within a circular zone called a “Crease”- each also sitting in a larger zoned area called a “Restraining Box”

·         The object of the Game is score by shooting the ball into the opponents goal past the “Goalie”, using the Lacross Stick to catch, cradle and pass the ball to do so.  Each score is One (1) Point

·         Play is started for each Game, each Quarter and following every score- by a “Face Off”- where Two (2) players lay each of their sticks horizontally with the ball in the middle, and remain in a squatting position facing their sticks until the whistle is blown.  At this moment, the Two (2) players scrap for the ball by “Clamping” the ball under their stick and flicking the ball to one of their teammates

·         Time of play (depending on the league) is traditionally divided into Four (4) parts or “Quarters”- with the traditional allotted time of Fifteen (15) minutes per Quarter (Sixty (60) minutes for the Game).  For younger players and depending on the league- the Quarters can be shorter, and it can also be conducted by Two (2) halves instead of Quarters

·         The break (depending on the league) between Halves is Ten (10) to Fifteen (15) Minutes, and approximately Two (2) Minutes between Quarters.  Teams changes sides of the field every Quarter    

·         If the score is level / the same score for both teams at the end of the game- depending on the league- a game can be extended by Five (5) minutes, with the first time to score- winning the game 

·         Lacrosse is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”), but can also be played indoors (called “Box Lacrosse”, Five (5) Players on each side) on traditional ice hockey rinks with the ice removed, or other indoor venues on a variety of surfaces including but not limited to rubberized surfaces, concrete, wood and artificial turf.  Lacrosse can also be played on a beach (sand) surface as well

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills (only if within safe distance from the a Lacrosse ball in play during pregame practice), a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Lacrosse Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Team Introduction.  Example: Cheerleaders can create a “tunnel” or a “welcome line” as the Lacrosse Players enter onto the field.  Depending on the league, Cheerleaders can perform skills- or a movement as the Lacrosse  Team enters    

b.      Player introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to perform a skills- or a movement as each player is introduced.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

c.       Beginning of each Quarter/Face Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of Quarter/Face Off -  when the Referee prepares blow the whistle to begin the Face Off at the halfway line, the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment whistle is blown and the Face Off / action begins.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game/play begins

d.      Penalty.  Example:  Cheerleaders can position themselves to lead the crowd in a chant- while in a skill- to inspire the Attacker (if offense) or Goalie (if defense) for his/her best performance

e.      Following a “Point” or “Goal”.   Example:  Following a Point or Goal, Cheerleaders traditionally perform a traditional celebration with the performance of skills, a traditional crowd chant/cheer, or a routine to music

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

Note:  The Lacrosse ball is a potentially quick moving object and the Cheerleading team must be in a safe distance from the action on the field, to perform any Cheerleading skills   

4.      During “Penalties” or “Out of Bounds” plays:  An estimated fifteen  (15) seconds to performing skills- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Lacrosse player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between Periods:  An estimated Two (2) minutes  (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

7.      Between Halves (between the 2nd and 3rd Period):   An estimated Ten (10) to Fifteen (15) minutes (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Rugby Sevens (7s)

Sport:  Rugby Sevens (7s)

Origin:  England

International Federation:   World Rugby http://www.worldrugby.org/  

Countries:  One Hundred Thirty (130) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Rugby Sevens (7s) is a contact team sport, involving an oval-shaped ball played on a rectangular field with “H” shaped goalposts at each end, which originated in England in the early 1800’s.   Reputed to have originated during an English School Football/Soccer match at Rugby School in 1823, it is said that student William Webb Ellis picked up the Football/Soccer ball and ran with it- therefore creating a new sport of Rugby Football.  Although evidence of its origin is not confirmed, Rugby School immortalized the event with the unveiling of a plague in 1895, and the Rugby World Cup Trophy is named after Webb Ellis.  Following 1823, this new Sport was played at Rugby School – with its pupils further introducing the Sport to their respective universities.  In 1845, the first Rugby Football Rules were written by Rugby School pupils, followed by “Cambridge Rules” for Football/Soccer written in 1848.  In 1863, the Blackheath Club decided to leave the Football Association (FA)- further separating Rugby Football from Football/Soccer, and the Rugby Football Union was formerly established in 1871.  In 1895, Rugby Football was split between “Rugby Union” and “Rugby League” but is referred to as “Rugby” throughout most of the world.

 

The first Rugby international match was played 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England, Scotland won the game 1-0.   By 1881, Ireland and Wales had Rugby teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the “Home Nations Championship” was held.  Also in 1883, the first Rugby Sevens Tournament, the “Melrose Sevens” was held – and continues as an annual Rugby Tournament.  In 1886, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (later joined by England in 1890) formed the International Rugby Football Board “IRFB” (renamed to World Rugby in 2014).  In 1888, a British Isles Rugby Team visited Australia and New Zealand, introducing Rugby to the Oceania Region, and in 1888-1889, a New Zealand team competed in Great Britain.  Rugby became part of the Summer Olympic programme in 1900 (also in 1908, 1920, 1924- Rugby Sevens being reinstated In 2016), and in 1905, the New Zealand Touring Team performed the haka before each match- and Wales player Teddy Morgan leading the crowd with the Welsh National Anthem, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, as a response- with the crowd joining in- installing a tradition of national anthems being performed prior to the start of a sporting event.  Subsequent Rugby team tours continued globally further introducing Rugby to nations like South Africa – quickly growing Rugby around the world.

 

The game of Rugby Union Football / Rugby consists of two (2) opposing teams of Seven (7) players each- on a rectangular field with “H” shaped goalposts at each end  

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Rugby rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Seven (7) players- Three (2) Forwards, Two (2) Backs each-  on the field at one time (14 players total on the field at one time)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into Two (2) Forty (40) minutes halves with a break in the middle of each.  Stoppages for injuries or to allow the referee to take disciplinary action does not count for official time, so the elapse time is generally greater than Eighty (80) minutes.   Each break between “Halves” the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         During the game (with the exception of the start of each half commencing with the “Kick Off” or during moments of pause in possession- called a “Scrum” or a “Lineout”), one (1) team has possession of the oval-shaped football and is attempting to advance down the field by three (3) ways- kicking, running, passing backwards or laterally (forward passes are not allowed) to score on the opposing team

·         Method of scoring by the team in possession of the ball can be the following:   A “Try” = 5 points by the team in possession grounding the ball in the opponents “In-Goal” area between the “Goal Line” and the “Dead-Ball line”;  following a “Try”- a “Conversion Goal” = two (2) additional points by kicking the ball from the point where the Try is scored (seven (7) points total);  or by a “Drop Goal” dropping the ball to the ground and kicking it the same time through the “Goal Posts”) during the course of play = three (3) points.   If a the referee awards a penalty, the awarded team may elect to kick a “Penalty Goal” from a tee or a Drop Kick= three (3) points

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Rugby Sevens (7s) is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and/or indoors on a similar performance surface.   Rugby Sevens (7s) can also be played on the beach (a sand surface) as well as various indoor/outdoor surfaces determined safe by league officials

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Rugby Union Football Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Rugby teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game or half begins

b.      Following a Score (via a Try, a Conversional Goal, Drop Goal or Penalty Kick).  A traditional activity engaging the crowd (e.g. Counting Points with the crowd through Cheerleader pushups, Stunt Extensions, Tumbling), or a celebratory performance, signs leading the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song- are excellent opportunities following a Rugby Team Score

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During a change/pause in possession (preparing for a “Scrum” or a “Lineout):  An estimated fifteen-thirty (15-30) seconds (depending on the game score clock) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Rugby injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Half (“Half-Time”):  An estimated thirty (30) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Rugby Union Football / Rugby

Sport:  Rugby Union Football / Rugby

Origin:  England

International Federation:   World Rugby http://www.worldrugby.org/  

Countries:  One Hundred Thirty (130) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   Rugby Union Football / Rugby is a contact team sport, involving an oval-shaped ball played on a rectangular field with “H” shaped goalposts at each end, which originated in England in the early 1800’s.   Reputed to have originated during an English School Football/Soccer match at Rugby School in 1823, it is said that student William Webb Ellis picked up the Football/Soccer ball and ran with it- therefore creating a new sport of Rugby Football.  Although evidence of its origin is not confirmed, Rugby School immortalized the event with the unveiling of a plague in 1895, and the Rugby World Cup Trophy is named after Webb Ellis.  Following 1823, this new Sport was played at Rugby School – with its pupils further introducing the Sport to their respective universities.  In 1845, the first Rugby Football Rules were written by Rugby School pupils, followed by “Cambridge Rules” for Football/Soccer written in 1848.  In 1863, the Blackheath Club decided to leave the Football Association (FA)- further separating Rugby Football from Football/Soccer, and the Rugby Football Union was formerly established in 1871.  In 1895, Rugby Football was split between “Rugby Union” and “Rugby League” but is referred to as “Rugby” throughout most of the world.

 

The first Rugby international match was played 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England, Scotland won the game 1-0.   By 1881, Ireland and Wales had Rugby teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the “Home Nations Championship” was held.  Also in 1883, the first Rugby Sevens Tournament, the “Melrose Sevens” was held – and continues as an annual Rugby Tournament.  In 1886, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (later joined by England in 1890) formed the International Rugby Football Board “IRFB” (renamed to World Rugby in 2014).  In 1888, a British Isles Rugby Team visited Australia and New Zealand, introducing Rugby to the Oceania Region, and in 1888-1889, a New Zealand team competed in Great Britain.  Rugby became part of the Summer Olympic programme in 1900 (also in 1908, 1920, 1924- Rugby Sevens being reinstated In 2016), and in 1905, the New Zealand Touring Team performed the haka before each match- and Wales player Teddy Morgan leading the crowd with the Welsh National Anthem, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, as a response- with the crowd joining in- installing a tradition of national anthems being performed prior to the start of a sporting event.  Subsequent Rugby team tours continued globally further introducing Rugby to nations like South Africa – quickly growing Rugby around the world.

 

The game of Rugby Union Football / Rugby consists of two (2) opposing teams of (15) twelve players each- on a rectangular field with “H” shaped goalposts at each end  

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Rugby rules and regulations – for details 

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Fifteen (15) players- Eight (8) Forwards, Seven (7) Backs each-  on the field at one time (30 players total on the field at one time)

·         Time of play is traditionally divided into Two (2) Forty (40) minutes halves with a break in the middle of each.  Stoppages for injuries or to allow the referee to take disciplinary action does not count for official time, so the elapse time is generally greater than Eighty (80) minutes.   Each break between “Halves” the two (2) opposing teams switch sides of the field 

·         During the game (with the exception of the start of each half commencing with the “Kick Off” or during moments of pause in possession- called a “Scrum” or a “Lineout”), one (1) team has possession of the oval-shaped football and is attempting to advance down the field by three (3) ways- kicking, running, passing backwards or laterally (forward passes are not allowed) to score on the opposing team

·         Method of scoring by the team in possession of the ball can be the following:   A “Try” = 5 points by the team in possession grounding the ball in the opponents “In-Goal” area between the “Goal Line” and the “Dead-Ball line”;  following a “Try”- a “Conversion Goal” = two (2) additional points by kicking the ball from the point where the Try is scored (seven (7) points total);  or by a “Drop Goal” dropping the ball to the ground and kicking it the same time through the “Goal Posts”) during the course of play = three (3) points.   If a the referee awards a penalty, the awarded team may elect to kick a “Penalty Goal” from a tee or a Drop Kick= three (3) points

·         The team with the most points at the end of a game wins

·         Rugby Union Football is primarily played outdoors on a grass surface (real or artificial / “turf”) and/or indoors on a similar performance surface.   Rugby Union Football can also be played on the beach (a sand surface) as well as various indoor/outdoor surfaces determined safe by league officials

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Pom Team activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, confirmed athlete progression learning for appropriate skill performance levels & athlete preparedness, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Rugby Union Football Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Kick Off.  Example:  In anticipation of the start of the Game (when the Rugby teams get into position on the field- and one of the team’s Kicker prepares to kick the ball and begin the Game), the Cheerleaders position themselves in front of the crowd – leading the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the ball is kicked and the game official starts.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a stunt in front of the crowd with a noise maker of some kind – within the ICU safety rules (e.g.  top person on a shoulder stand can shake a set of car keys) – until the ball is kicked. The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game or half begins

b.      Following a Score (via a Try, a Conversional Goal, Drop Goal or Penalty Kick).  A traditional activity engaging the crowd (e.g. Counting Points with the crowd through Cheerleader pushups, Stunt Extensions, Tumbling), or a celebratory performance, signs leading the crowd to yell the Team’s colors, Name, Team Initials, Mascot Name, or a Fight Song- are excellent opportunities following a Rugby Team Score

3.      During Play:  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill), unless within closer proximity to the game in progress (on the ground, no skills)

4.      During a change/pause in possession (preparing for a “Scrum” or a “Lineout):  An estimated fifteen-thirty (15-30) seconds (depending on the game score clock) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

5.      Time-out:  An estimated thirty (30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  If there is a Rugby injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Half (“Half-Time”):  An estimated thirty (30) minutes or more (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally perform a little following the half-time and prior to the start of the 2nd half, but Cheerleaders and Pom Teams traditionally take time to rest as well – while there is another form of “Half-Time” entertainment (e.g. a music group, marching band, and/or some other performance for the crowd)

7.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

 

Softball

Sport:  Softball  

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) http://www.wbsc.org/

Countries:  One Hundred Forty One (141) countries  

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:   Softball is a “Bat and Ball” sport, a variant of Baseball, played between two (2) teams of Nine (9) – Ten (10) Players who take turns batting and fielding, with a larger ball than Baseball on a smaller field.   Following Baseball’s 1845 codification of the “Knickerbocker Rules”- and subsequent popularity of Baseball, Softball was invented in 1887 in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. primarily as an indoor game.  Due to the size of the ball, the name “Softball” was coined in 1926, and a Softball tournament held at the 1933 Chicago World’s Fair - spurred great interest in the game.  Also in 1933, the Amateur Softball Association (ASA) of American was established to governing the game in the U.S.A., and the International Softball Federation (ISF) was established in 1952 as the international governing body.  In 2013, the International Softball Federation merged with the International Baseball Federation (IBAF) to become the World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC).  There are two (2) types of Softball, “Slow-Pitch” and “Fast-Pitch”, designating the speed of the Softball underhand-style pitch to the “Batter” and the subsequent pace of the respective game. 

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Softball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Nine (9) - Ten (10) Players each who take turns “Batting” and “Fielding”, on a Softball specific field consisting of 45 degree angle “piece of pie shape” which is the field of play, with an angled square area the “Softball Diamond” inside of it- consisting of the Four (4) “Bases” and “Pitcher’s Mound” in the middle of the square

·         The objective of each team is to “Score Runs” around the “Bases” to reach “Home Plate” while “at Bat” against the opposing team.  Within the rules and regulations, the  and running around all Four (4) Bases to return to the original batting position, called “Home Plate”

·         Time of play consists of Nine (9) “Innings” – segments of the game (not timed) of which each team has the opportunity to “Bat” (to be on offense) and also “Field”  (to be on defense)

·         Within each Inning, the Defensive team / the team “Fielding” - has its Nine (9) – Ten (10) players in specific positions throughout the Softball Field, with One (1) of these Players- the “Pitcher” - in the middle of the “diamond” throwing the baseball to the Offensive team’s person who is “Batting” /  standing at the “Home Plate” with a bat trying to hit the ball being thrown by the Defensive Team’s Pitcher

·         Each time the Offensive team’s person is “at Bat” they have Three (3) tries or “Strikes” to successfully hit the ball within the field of play, without the defensive team catching the ball before it hits the ground.  Also – once the ball is hit, the offensive player must then successfully run to the “First Base” (of Four (4) total bases) prior to the ball reaching the first base from the defensive team.  If the offensive player reaches Three (3) Strikes – while batting, or does not successfully reach the “First Base”, then this player is “Out”.   Three (3) “Outs” concludes an offensive series in an Inning, and then the teams switch places.  Once each team has an opportunity to play “Offense” (Bat) and also “Defense” (Field), the inning is over

·         The goal of each team is to successfully hit the ball, and run around all Four (4) Bases, reaching the position where they started- also called “Home Plate”.  By reaching “Home Plate” – an offensive teams scores One (1) point.  An offensive batter can also hit the ball – in bounds of the 45 degree field- but out of the designated playing area to score a “Home Run”, this automatically advances the Offensive player to Home Plate and any other Offensive players who might be on one of the Bases.  Each player reaching Home Plate= 1 point for the Offensive team

·         The team with the most points at the end of the Ninth (9th) Inning, wins the game.  If both teams are tied at the end of the 9th Inning, the Softball Teams continue to play full Innings, until one of the teams has more points, designating a win

·         Softball is played primarily outdoors on a specific Softball Field comprising of grass or turf (for the “Outfield” or area beyond the “Bases”) and earth / dirt / clay or the areas where the Offensive players will run / where the Bases are located.  Softball is also played indoors (and outdoors) with a variety of surfaces (rubberized track, concrete, earth, dirt, clay, wood, turf), and can be played on a beach surface (sand)- although the more standard outdoor surface (grass and earth) is more common 

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)  

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  On the grass surface, out of the way of any practice Softballs being thrown or batted, Cheerleaders can performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers. Cheerleaders can also be within the interior of the stadium (leading the crowd – with no skills), or within a safe designated area performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers.  No skills are allowed at any time on top of a Softball Dugout -  and any crowd leading from this position are only allowed if the dimensions and structure are such, that the Dugout is used as an official stage for other activities during the Softball game AND if any Softball is not in play

2.      Softball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions.  Example:  Depending on the game arrangements and surface, Cheerleaders create “tunnel”  – with two (2) lines of cheerleaders facing each other- for the Softball Players to run through once their name is announced OR the Cheerleaders can position themselves to face the crowd for the introductions. Once each Softablll Player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform skills- or a movement as each player runs through.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      Seventh (7th) Inning Stretch.  Between the Sixth (6th) and Seventh (7th) Innings, Softball Games normally take a longer break (to allow the crowd to stand up and “Stretch”) to sing a song, play interactive music or do something traditional for the home softball team.  During this time, Cheerleaders should coordinate with the Softball Game director and add Cheerleading skills or activities to the tradition being performed.  This can be something unique to the home team, e.g. holding a skill while singing a song, using signs, poms and hand gestures to lead the crowd, working together with the team mascot - and / or dispersing in the crowd to encourage interaction with the Seventh (7th) Inning tradition

c.       The First Pitch.  In anticipation of the start of the Game the “First Pitch”, the Cheerleaders position themselves - out of the way of a potential traveling Softball - but in a place to lead the crowd to make noise highlighting the moment the official start of the game.  Often, Cheerleaders are positioned in a place to lead the crowd- with a noise maker of some kind (e.g. a set of car keys or following the Game musical/percussion group) – until the First Pitch.   The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the Game begins

3.      During Play:  Because a Softball is a fast moving object, the Cheerleaders should refrain from performing skills or doing any activities that would place the Cheerleaders in range of a traveling Softball.  Basic chants, cheers in a safe position is all that should be performed during play, with a clear view of the Softball Game underway.   If there is a designated area that is safe for skills to be performed, where it is not possible for a Softball to  travel to that rea- then Cheerleading skills and performances to music may be initiated 

4.      Between the “Top of the Inning” (first team on offense) and “Bottom of the Inning” (second team on offense).  This is the moment when there is the exchange of the teams from the Field / Defensive position.  There is an estimated 5-10 seconds to perform a quick skill, chants or cheers with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  Very important:  Cheerleaders must be out of the range of play before the first pitch

5.      Following Score or a “Run”:  An estimated 5 seconds to perform a quick chant, cheer or band cheer with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  There is traditionally very little time to perform a skill following a normal score or “Run” in Softball

6.      Following a “Home Run”:  Once a Cheerleader’s team hits the Softball in-bounds but out of the Field of play- it is a “Home Run”.   When this happens, there is an estimated 5-10 seconds to perform a celebratory chant, cheer or band cheer with the crowd- depending on the game momentum.  Although there is traditionally just a little more time following a “Home Run” than an regular score or “Run”- there very little time to perform a skill unless it is a traditional celebratory activity coordinated with the Softball Game director.  This is a great opportunity to perform something very traditional and unique for your baseball team- but it must be coordinated with the Softball game director  

7.      Time-out / Switch of Pitchers:  An estimated ten-thirty (10-30) seconds (depending on the league) to performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

Note:  During a Softball injury time-out (e.g. an injury on the court), the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Volleyball / Beach Volleyball

Sport:  Volleyball / Beach Volleyball

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) www.fivb.com 

Countries:  Two Hundred Twenty (220) countries

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:    Volleyball / Beach Volleyball is a sport in which Two (2) Teams of Two (2) Players (or more) are separated by a net, and each teams attempts to score points by grounding the ball on the opposing team’s side of the court under organized rules.  Derived from as a version of the Sport of Volleyball (created on 9 February 1895 in Holyoke, Massachusetts, U.S.A.), Beach Volleyball became a popular version of the game played on the beaches of Waikiki Beach in Hawaii at the Outrigger Canoe Club in 1915.  In the 1920s, Santa Monica, California U.S.A. developed large sandy recreational areas for public enjoyment, and by 1922 Beach Sport Clubs began to develop with the first inter-club competitions.  Prior to 1930, all Beach Volleyball consisted of Two (2) teams of Six (6) Players each, until Santa Monica Athletic Club player Paul “Pablo” Johnson, waiting for Six (6) players, started a game with only Two (2) players- forever changing the game of Beach Volleyball.  Although versions of more than Two (2) players continues to this day, the Two (2) player format grew in popularity globally.   By the 1930s, Beach Volleyball reached beaches in Europe, in 1974 Professional Beach Volleyball tours were organized – and Beach Volleyball quickly expanded around the world

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Beach Volleyball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Two (2) Players (or more) each- each team on the other side of the net

·         One (1) point is scored if the Offensive / Serving Team successfully grounds the ball inbounds- on the opponent’s side of the net, or if the opposing team fails to successfully return the ball over the net (e.g.  each team has a limit of Three (3) contacts of the ball on either side of the net).  If the Offensive / Serving Team fails during their “Serve”- then the ball switches to the other team- who has the Offensive opportunity to “Serve” and score point(s)

·         Traditionally (depending on the league) the “Match” (the Game in its entirety) is comprised of “Best of Five” (and sometimes “Best of Three)” Sets in which each “Set” is usually a game to Fifteen (15) points – unless otherwise specified.  Traditionally, a team can only win a Set- if the team wins by Two (2) or more points

·         To win a Match/Game- a team traditionally must win the best of Three (3) Matches or best of Five (5) Matches- as designated by the Beach Volleyball league 

·         Beach Volleyball can be played outdoors and indoors- the playing surface is sand  (with a potentially surrounding area including but not limited to grass, turf, concrete, wood, fiberglass, metal, or rubberized track)

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Beach Volleyball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions.  Example:  Upon each Beach Volleyball player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform a skill- or a movement for each player.  The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      First Serve.  Example:  Prior to the Beach Volleyball “First Serve” to begin the game- Cheerleaders perform skills and make noise with the crowd involved –to highlight the moment when the game begins.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team –just prior to the start of the game

3.      During Play:  Leading the crowd in chants or cheers (no skills allowed while the ball is “in play”)

4.      Between Plays (time between a point scored and before the next serve):  An estimated 15-30 seconds to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

5.      Time-out:  One (1) time-out is allowed for each team for each set (2 time outs possible per set), each time out=  Thirty (30) seconds maximum to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

Note:  If there is an Beach Volleyball player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Match (time between one team winning a match- and the teams switching sides of the net):  An estimated Two (2) minutes to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

Possible Exception:  If the game reaches the final set (e.g. the 3rd Game of a 3 match set)- depending on the league, the teams can switch sides mid-Match= adding an estimated Two (2) minutes to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

7.      For designated Five (5) Match Games (e.g. for Championship Games), it is possible for a break before the final Match to be Ten (10) minutes or less= to perform a skill, a routine to music and/or lead a chants for the crowd

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Volleyball / Team Volleyball

Sport:  Volleyball / Team Volleyball

Origin:  U.S.A.

International Federation:   Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) www.fivb.com 

Countries:  Two Hundred Twenty (220) countries

Continents:  All Five 5 continents

Notes:    Volleyball / Team Volleyball is a team sport in which Two (2) Teams of Six (6) Players are separated by a net, and each teams attempts to score points by grounding the ball on the opposing team’s side of the court under organized rules.  Volleyball was created on 9 February 1895 (originally called “Mintonette”) by William G. Morgan - who was a Physical Education Director at the YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) located in Holyoke, Massachusetts, U.S.A..  Only four years earlier also in a YMCA located Ten (10) Miles / Sixteen (16) Kilometers away – the Sport of Basketball was created, and Mintonette (later called “Volleyball”) was established to provide a less rough but yet athletic Sport for the older members of the YMCA.   At the first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School nearby (now called “Springfield College”), observer Alfred Halstead termed the name “Volleyball” based on the volleying nature of the game, and Volleyball spread in popularity to surrounding YMCAs.  By 1900, Volleyball spread to Canada, and through U.S.A. military troups playing the game recreationally within various countries, Volleyball quickly spread around the world- with the original rules of the game slightly modifying over time.   Volleyball is played both indoors and outdoors

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Volleyball rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Two (2) teams of Six (6) Players each- each team on the other side of the net

·         One (1) point is scored if the Offensive / Serving Team successfully grounds the ball inbounds- on the opponent’s side of the net, or if the opposing team fails to successfully return the ball over the net (e.g.  each team has a limit of Three (3) contacts of the ball on either side of the net).  If the Offensive / Serving Team fails during their “Serve”- then the ball switches to the other team- who has the Offensive opportunity to “Serve” and score point(s)

·         Traditionally (depending on the league) the “Match” (the Game in its entirety) is comprised of “Best of Five” (and sometimes “Best of Three)” Sets in which each “Set” is usually a game to Fifteen (15) points – unless otherwise specified.  Traditionally, a team can only win a Set- if the team wins by Two (2) or more points

·         To win a Match/Game- a team traditionally must win the best of Three (3) Matches or best of Five (5) Matches- as designated by the Volleyball league 

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors)

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the game starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Volleyball Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Player introductions.  Example:  Upon each basketball player introduction- the Cheerleaders perform a skill- or a movement for each player.  The idea is to create great excitement for the Cheerleader’s team before the game begins

b.      First Serve.  Example:  Prior to the Volleyball “First Serve” to begin the game- Cheerleaders perform skills and make noise with the crowd involved –to highlight the moment when the game begins.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team –just prior to the start of the game

3.      During Play:  Leading the crowd in chants or cheers (no skills allowed while the ball is “in play”)

4.      Between Plays (time between a point scored and before the next serve):  An estimated 15-30 seconds to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

5.      Time-out:  One (1) time-out is allowed for each team for each set (2 time outs possible per set), each time out=  Thirty (30) seconds maximum to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

Note:  If there is an Volleyball player injury time-out or if there is any injury on the field, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team must kneel on the field and remain in silence until the officials signal for the game to resume

6.      Between each Match (time between one team winning a match- and the teams switching sides of the net):  An estimated Two (2) minutes to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

Possible Exception:  If the game reaches the final set (e.g. the 3rd Game of a 3 match set)- depending on the league, the teams can switch sides mid-Match= adding an estimated Two (2) minutes to perform a skill or lead a chants for the crowd

7.      For designated Five (5) Match Games (e.g. for Championship Games), it is possible for a break before the final Match to be Ten (10) minutes or less= to perform a skill, a routine to music and/or lead a chants for the crowd

8.      Post-Game (following the Game): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)

Wrestling

Sport:  Wrestling

Origin:  All Nations   

International Federation:  United World Wrestling (UWW)  www.unitedworldwrestling.org 

Countries:  One Hundred Seventy Four (174) countries  

Continents:  All Five (5) continents

Notes:   The Sport of Wrestling has its roots in human prehistory, the oldest of all sporting competitions. The first recorded evidence of Wrestling dates back 15,000 years through cave drawings in France, followed by reliefs and literature through human history.  Wrestling was a sport in the Ancient Olympic Games, and continues in the Modern Olympic Games within the disciplines of Greco-Roman (upper body) and Freestyle (full body) Wrestling.  Other disciplines of Wrestling are popular throughout the world. The field of play can be indoors or outdoors, traditionally on a padded wrestling mat or a variety of softer surfaces, including a sand surface for the beach versions of the sport.  In 1912, the international governing body for wrestling was established, Fédération Internationale des Luttes Associées (FILA), with a name change to United World Wrestling (UWW) in 2014

Rules:   Please reference the respective league’s Wrestling rules and regulations- for details

Rules Brief Description:   A game consists of the following:

·         Depending on the discipline, Wrestling traditionally includes two (2) teams or individual wrestling athletes matches against opponents in similar weight classes- with the objective to achieve a “Fall” or “Pin” (place the shoulder blades firmly on the competition surface for a designated number of seconds) or by scoring Points awarded by achieving advantages over the opponents- including but not limited to “Take Downs” (gaining control of the opponent on the performance surface), “Escapes” (escaping from the control position of the opponent), “Reversals” (gaining control of the opponent from the defensive position), “Near Falls”/ “Exposure” (exposing the opponents back to the competition surface), Penalties, etc. 

·         For the individual, winning the match is primarily achieved by “Pinning” the opponent (placing the shoulder blades firmly on the competition surface for a designated number of seconds) or scoring more points than the opponent by the end of the match

·         For the team, winning the match is primarily achieved by the team collectively earning more points by its individual athletes victories versus the other team (team scoring rules dependent upon the league)

·         The time format of a wrestling match can greatly vary by league, but for each dual match (competition of two (2) wrestlers) – the time structure can be two (2) or three (3) periods, averaging two (2) to (3) minutes for each period.

·         The team match time format- includes the time of all of a team’s dual matches throughout its respective weight classes 

·         Wrestling can be held indoors or outdoors, traditionally on a padded wrestling mat or a variety of softer surfaces, including a sand surface for the beach versions of the sport

Cheerleading Opportunities:   

Note(a):  All Cheerleading and Cheerdance activities must follow the International Cheer Union rules and guidelines, as well as ICU safety guidelines adjustments for game environmental factors, including but not limited to-  varied performance surfaces, varied performance dimensions (horizontal and vertical performances areas), potential game obstructions (e.g. camera people, etc.), lighting and weather (if outdoors), as well as areas of field of play

Note(b):   Use of Native language and local culture is encouraged, as well as use of signs, poms and megaphones highlighting key words- such as the Team Name (or Nation- for a National Teams), Team Colors, Team Mascot (if applicable) – and use traditional chants / cheers of the team (or Nation for National Teams) to enhance the game environment.  For more helpful information on game skill development, please contact the ICU atinfo@cheerunion.org for further details 

1.      Pre-Game (before the Wrestling match starts):  Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill)

2.      Wrestling Match Game-specific Cheerleading opportunities:  

a.      Pre-match Athlete and Team introductions.  Example:  Cheerleaders can stand at various designated safe locations within the venue- to support an Athlete or Team when they are introduced.  Upon each introduction- the Cheerleaders can perform skills.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the specific event begins

b.      Introduction of each athlete’s individual dual match.   Example:  Cheerleaders can stand at various designated safe locations within the venue- to support the specific Athlete and Team prior to the start of each individual dual match.  Upon each introduction- the Cheerleaders can perform skills.  The idea is to create great excitement for Cheerleader’s team before the individual match begins  

c.       Awards.  Cheerleaders can assist with the medal/award presentation – as determined by the Wrestling match event director 

Note:  During any athlete injury, the Cheerleaders and Pom Team athletes must remain in silence until the officials signal for the event to resume

3.      During an athlete’s individual dual match.  Cheerleaders can perform chants and cheers to the crowd (standing) or (seated) on the floor near the competition mat to provide encouragement to the athlete and the Cheerleader’s respective team 

4.      Post-Game (following the Game/ event): Performing skills, a routine to music- and/or leading the crowd in chants or cheers (on the ground- or in a skill).  Excellent opportunity to celebrate if your athlete and/or team wins

(Note:  Good sportsmanship is critical for all Cheerleading athletes- to opposing fans, team members or opposing cheerleaders)